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Bio exam1


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cell wall function (plants and fungi only(
support and protection
plasma membrane function
define cell boundary; control movement of substances in/out of cell
nucleus function
store genetic information; make DNA and RNA
nucleolus function
form ribosomes
chromatin function
store genetic info
ribosome function
protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
produce/modify proteins and other substances; vesicle transport
rough ER function
protein synthesis
smooth ER function
producecs lipids in some cells, stores things for cells, and has no ribosomes.
golgi apparatus function
processing, packaging, and distribution of proteins and lipids
vacuole and vesicle function
storage of various substances
lysosome function
intracellular digestion
peroxisome function
various metabolic tasks
mitochondria function
cellular respiration
cytoskeleton function
shape of cell and movement of its parts
cilia and flagella functions
movement of cell
cytoplasm function
fills bulk of cells volme; supports cell
centriole (animal cells only) function
formation of basal bodies
What is discovery science?
Going out to observe something and describe it to think about scientifically
What is inductive reasoning?
"this is true here and here so it's probably true over there"
hypothesis based science
Come up with an idea and test it.
What four elements are the most vital elements in our body?
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen
Important trace elements in our body (2)
Iron, Iodine
Molecules are
two or more elements together but can be same element
What do atoms look like?
They have a nucleus with protons and neutrons in it with a cloud of electrons surrounding.
A basic atom has same number of _ and _
protons and neutron
The mass of an atom is determined by the sum of the ___ and ___
protons and neutrons
Atomic number is
number of protons in an element. How they are identified. Number of protons never changes.
Isotopes are
more neutrons than protons
most elements besides hydrogen want to have this number of electrons in their outer shell
a covalent bond is
when electrons are being shared between atoms
ionic bond is
If an atom has only 1 electron in outer shell it gives it away to someone else in order to have 8. Then it becomes slightly positively charged and the other atom will be negatively charged. They will then stick together because opposite charges.
hydrogen bond
In H2O when oxygen wants more electrons than hydrogen it pulls and the electrons are closer to oxygen so slightly negative charge, and less around hydrogen so more positive then they stick together tighter!
Polar molecules are
Molecules with a slight charge; have surface tension
What is unique about water?
1. it is polar 2. it has a high boiling point. 3. huge range to be liquid 4. Achieves sublimation 5. solid form is less dense than its liquid for
Evaporative cooling is...and it is also known as...
When water molecules break up and evaporate they take heat with them. why sweating is efficient. called sublimation.
Two consequences of ice being denser than water.
1. Ponds only freeze on the top so aquatic life can survive 2. your pipes can burst in the winter since it expands.
What is a solvent?
Something that can dissolve stuff easily
How does water dissolve salt?
The positive charge surrounds Cl and the negative charge surrounds Na and literally rips them apart.
When there is the same number of H as OH then the thing is...
neutral. not overly basic or acidic.
If there are extra hydrogens in a thing then
it is acidic
if there is extra OH in a thing then its
You could possibly turn something acidic by adding
HCl - hydrochloric acid
You can make something more basic by adding
NaOH - sodium hydroxide.
the pH scale numbers range is what?
pure water is a pH of what?
Each step down the pH scale is ___
10x more hydrogen ions
What is particular about the pH of human blood?
It is a pH of 7.4 and cannot tolerate pH changes at all.
What is hydrofluoric acid? (HF)
Will dissolve glass. Was used to make beakers back in the day.
What is acid rain? and why is it so bad?
When industry releases chemicals in air, reacts with water and rains with a pH of 3-5. Gets into the soil and dissolves away minerals for plants and they die.
What is a reaction?
When you take two chemical substances to get something else. Always the same number of atoms you started with.
What are the different structural ways that molecules are drawn? (3)
1. structural (drawn on paper) 2. ball/stick (connex!) 3. spacefilling (looks like orbs)
hydrocarbons are
different numbers of hydrogen and carbons combined to create fuels/make energy
What is dehydration?
In order for two molecules to connect via carbon, the H of one and OH of another need to get out of the way. So H2O falls off of connection.
What are functional groups?
1. Tells you how molecules will behave/their properties. Be able to add OH instead of just H to a carbon. Ex: determine male and female
monomers are
the fundamental units of functional groups
The four basic fundamental molecules are
carbohydrate,s proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
what is important with protiens?
that the right monomers in right sequence are put together to do their job right.
isomers are
when two things have the same formula but are different molecules!
the monomer for carbohydrates is a
The polymer for carbohydrates are
glucose and fructose are
monosaccharides and form sucrose
sucrose is a
starch is consisted of
many glucose monomers
to store glucose from starch in the body the body uses
cellulose is
the active structure in plants.
1. are used for energy storage 2. help chemical signals in body 3. make up cell membranes/insulation 4. are very hydrophobic
two kinds of lipid monomers are
fatty acid and glycerol
molecularly, lipids are a long chain of what?
carbon and hydrogen. not much oxygen.
unsaturated fats
Do not have the maximum number of hydrogens possible connected.
saturated fats
have max number of hydrogens possibly connected.
at room temperature unsaturated fats are in what form?
at room temperature saturated fats are in what form?
trans. fat consists of what oil?
partially hydrogenated vegetable oil
trans fat is created from what?
a chemical process to add more hydrogens unnaturally.
because phospholipids have a charge on one side, what happens?
one side wants to dissolve and the other doesn't.
Phospholipids in water create what
a cell membrane.
steroids are
chemical messengers to hormones in the body
the monomer for proteins is
amino acid
the polymer for proteins is
protein does what
gives us structure/muscle/color
enzymes do what
helps control all biological reactions in body. tells molecules how to hook together.
how many amino acids are there?
proteins are made up of...
amino acids
amino acids are made up of these things hooked to a carbon middle...(3)
an amino group, carboxyl (acid), and a remainder that determines amino acids from each other.
amino acids hooked together are bonded by what kind of bond?
dipeptide bond
Why do proteins look like blobs?
Because the strings of amino acids all have negative charges so when connected they twist in different directions.
All proteins have ___
what kind of bonds are formed with the twisting of protein blobs?
hydrogen bonds
what is the downside of protein blobs being put together with hydrogen bonds?
theyre not that strong and in a high or low temp or acidic or basic area breaks and molecules get destroyed.
what happens when a molecule is denatured?
it no longer has its natural shape and is destroyed.
primary structure of proteins is
order of amino acids.
secondary structure of protein is
chains and patterns within proteins. they are repeatable and recognizable.
tertiary structure of protein is
the finalized product (blob polypeptide of a protein)
DNA does what?
tells how to make specific polypeptides to make useful protein in body.
nucleic acid monomer is
nucleic acid polymers are
DNA and RNA have how many monomers each?
Which monomers do DNA have?
Cytosin, Adenind, Guanine, Thymine
Which monomers do RNA have?
Cytosin, Adenind, Guanine, Uracil
What is the sugar in DNA called?
What is the sugar in RNA called?
Who discovered the structure of proteins?
Linus Paulie
max magnification on a microscope is
metric system is based on
powers of 10
basic unit of length in the metric system is
the meter
What are the two kinds of cells?
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
ALL cells have (2)
1. plasma membrane 2. ribosomes
Ribosomes are...
put proteins together after reading the DNA of how to.
Prokaryotes consist of (5)
1. cell membrane 2. capsule 3. pili 4. bacterial chromosome 5. nucleoid
The cell membrane in a prokaryote is
inner layer of cell surrounded by cell wall, surrounded by capsule
The nucleoid in a prokaryote is
where the curled up chromosome sits
eukaryotes have compartments in their cell which means they are
membrane bound organelles
The three things that plant cells have that animal cells dont are
1. chloroplast 2. central vacuoles 3. cell walls
the nucleolis is
a factory for making ribosomes in the nucleus
the nucleus is surrounded by
the nuclear membrane
endoplasmic reticulum...
surrounds nucleus.
Rough ER is made up of
The Rough ER...
sends proteins to the golgi apparatus
the three membrane layers of chloroplast are
1. outer membrane 2. inner membrane 3. thylakoid membrane
Thylakoid membrane is
a membrane in chloroplast that houses stacks of granum.
granum are covered in
chloroplasts main duty is to
perform photosynthesis!
The inner membrane of mitochondria has potrusions called
thick liquid inside of mitochondria is called
Cellular respiration is
taking sugars and converting them to entergy
The energy that prokaryotes use is called
the cell's skeleton is made up of 3 parts
1. microfiliments 2. intermediate filaments 3. microtubules
microtubules are interesting because
they can become larger and shorter when needed by addding or releasing molecules
What are 3 ways cells move?
1. microtubules/skeleton 2. cilia, flagella 3. pseudopodia
what is pseudopodia?
When a cell moves all of its stuff to one side of itself in order to move in that direction.
plasmo-desmada is
pathways between cells
What three kinds of cell connections do animal cells have?
1. tight junctions 2. anchoring junctions 3. gap junctions
What are tight junctions? and an example of one?
proteins from different cells link together. Extremely tight. Ex: our intestines.
what are anchoring junctions? and an example?
They are more flexible like a hinge EX: Muscle, joint tissues
What are gap junctions?
Tubes from one cell to next like plasmo-desmada
energy is
the ability to do work
Two laws of thermodynamics
Amount of energy in any given thing is constant When energy is converted, this process is not 100% efficient.
All life on the planet is
the biosphere
compound contributing H+ ions to water is
an acid
functional group consisting of carbon double bonded to an oxygen is
carbonyl group
monomers are linked together by a
dehydration reaction
cellulose is composed of
phospholipids are specifically strange because they are
hydrophobic and hydrophillic
a polypeptide. Always a protein?
a large cell will have
a larger surface area than a small one and a smaller surface area to volume ratio than a small one
enzymes used to digest food are transported in
actin makes up
motion in cilia and flagells is caused by the movement of
dyein arms
a centriole is made up of
nine microtubule triplets
jnctions in animal cells that provide tight connections yet are flexible to allow for stretching and movement are known as
anchoring junctions

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