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Chapter 12 Personality


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characteristics, emotional responses, thoughts, and behaviors that are relatively stable over time and across circumstances
a characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances
personality trait
fruedian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behavior
psychodynamic theory
according to frued, the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges
psychosexual stages
in psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle
in psychodynamic theory, the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct
in psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego
unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from conflict and distress
defense mechanisms
approaches to studying personality that emphasize personal experience and belief systems, and propose the people seek personal growth to fulfuill thei human potential
humanistic approaches
discrete categories based on global characteristics
personality types
an approach to studying personality that focuses on the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions
trait approach
the idea that personality can be described using five traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
five-factor theory
5 traits of 5 factor theory
openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
Person-centered approaches to studying personality that focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons
idiographic approaches
approaches to studying personality that focus on characteristics that are common to all people, although there is individual variation
nomothetic approaches
personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli
projective measures
a projective measure of personality where a person is shown an ambiguous picture and asked to tell a story about the picture
TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)
relatively unbiased assessments of personality, usually based on information gathered through self-report questionairres or observer ratings
objective measures
the theory that behavior is determined as much by situations as by personality traits
biologically based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways
the brain system involved in the pursuit of incentives or rewards
BAS (Behavioral approach system)
the brain system that is sensitive to punishment and therefore inhibits behavior that might lead to danger or pain
BIS (behavioral inhibition system)
a transformation of personality that is sudden, profound, and enduring, and effects a wide range of behaviors
quantum change
defense mechanism: project your problems onto others
defense mechanism: turn unacceptable impulses into acceptable impulses (sibling rivalry to sibling love)
reaction formation
defense mechanism: unacceptable impulses hidden (sexual woman becomes nun)
defense mechanism: rationalize behavior to reduce anxiety
defense mechanism: experience negative mood over something you have no control over so displace your anger onto something you do have control over
defense mechanism: anxiety invoking thoughts are repressed into the unconscious
defense mechanism: refuses to recognize reality
defense mechanisms (7)
repression, denial, sublimination, reaction formation, displacement, projection, rationalization
theorists who believe that behavior is jointly determined by underlying dispositions and situations

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