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sociology final exam


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reformist movements
attempt to bring about new social change within an existing economic and political system. civil rights movements
revolutionary movements
seek to fundamentall alter the existing social, political, and or economic system and bring about an entirely new social order replacing a democracy with facism
countermovements or reactionary movements
attempt to resist or reverse social change, or to restore an earlier social system of norms, values, and social arrangements, countermovements form in reaction to social changes KKK
separatist movements
instead of seeking to change society through reforming it revolutionizing it or reacting to it, separatist movements encourage people to withdraw from participation in the dominant society by creating their own communities Amish, Shakers, Mennonites
social movements
organized collective human action aimed at producing or preventing change in society
social institutions
highly organized systems of norms, social positions, and social roles that aim to provide structure and order to society
formal social control
official, authoritative responses to deviance meant to convey collective or institutional standards of acceptable and unacceptable conduct
social control agents
people authorized to administer the social control function of institutions. they respond to deviance to maximize compliance with institutional norms
why do people comply with social norms when they have not internalized the legitimacy of normative expectations through socialization
social control and social influence
kinds of social power
rewards, threats, persuasive communication, referent power, legitimate authority, expert authority, charasmatic authority
persuasive communication
when we are influenced by info, arguments, or emotional appeals provided by others
referent power
when we are influenced by our desire to be accepted by members of valued social groups (peer influence)
legitimate authority
when we accept the authority of another person as a right associated with that social role- the authority figure can exert some kind of power over us vial their social position
expert authority
when we think or act in a certain way because we assume others are experts
charasmatic authority
when we are influenced by others' personal qualtities (charisma, charm, personality...)
four essential elements involved in movement formation
growth a preexisting communications network cooptable to the ideas of the new movement series of crises that galvanize into action people involved in a cooptable network subsequent organizing effort to weld the spontaneous group together into a movement
set of human values and interests that become the official view of reality beacuse a group of people have the power to define reality
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Illness
Madwives: Schizophrenic Women in the 1950s
suggest that the soceity was the source of the trouble for mass numbers of women who were institutionalized in mental institutionalized by their husbands. argues that many of these women did go mad and were suffering but that they were treated as if the origin of the problem was them rather the the new cultural requirements of wives
history of homosexuality
coined in europe as a medical pathology in the late 1800s and was considered a mental disorder from the 1st printing of the DSM. declassified by the American Psychiatric Association
questions raised from being sane in insane places
distinguish btwn mental illnes and health? identify sources of suffering? treat the problem? (source may be society) power of mental health experts to assign stigmatizing labels?
female hysteria
common medical diagnosis for women. common in nuns, virgins, widows, and sometimes married women. cure was pelvic massage
social control function
when people havent internalized the norms through socialization they need an external inducement to follow them. social control is one way that social institutions get people to comply with its norms
compulsory education laws
required children to attend school until the age of 16 or completion of the eight grade
smaller schools have evolved into education factories: larger class sizes, passivity among students, standardized measures of achievement
why is grade inflation happening?
substantial degree of grade inflation due to institutionalized pressure to retain students, competitiveness of colleges, professors are encouraged to produce more research and achieve high numbers on their evals, ability to withdraw from courses to elevate GPAs
grade inflation
awarding of higher and higher grades for average work
private schools tend to have (compared to public schools)
smaller classes, greater discipline, more demanding course work
practice of assigning students to different types of education programs
type 2 error
physicians are more inclined to call a healthy person sick (false positive type 2) than a sick person healthy (false negative type 1) more dangerous to misdiagnose illness than health, err on the side of caution
physical differences BIOLOGICAL
role expectations SOCIAL
social constructionism concerning sanity
sane and insane definitions change over time mental illness is socially constructed, we define it classify and declassify it
savage inequalities
perpetuate and increase class differences
invisible work
workd done in home or for family members typically done by women and typically unpaid but noticed when it is not done
ways in which you maintain ties with friends and family (sending bday cards)
securing goods and services for the family
transporting children to appointments
ability to act regardless of social pressures
steps in any nonviolent campaign
collection of facts: where injustice exists negotiation self purification (workshops on nonviolence) direct action
why direct action
creates crisis/enough tension for the issue to be confronted, dramatize issue so it cant be ignored, open doors to negotiation, no gain has been made w/o pressure
can you distinguish between sanity and insanity?
messages about social construction of reality
people have power to create labels that profoundly affect others (human constructions), society's problem, don't let society define you
must be composed of like minded people whose backgrounds, experiences, or location in the social structure make them receptive to the ideas of a specific new movement
origins of civil rights movement
Rosa Parks created montgomery bus boycott and montgomery improvement association A & T college students at the lunch counter nonviolent coordinating commitee
reality of social organizations
organizations are less likely to create social movements than be created by them
2 networks of women's movement
older brach: began 1st, older side of the generation gap, NOW, traditional democratic procedure younger ranch: small groups engaged in a variety of activities whose contact was weak
presidential and state commission activity laid the groundwork for the future women's movement in 2 ways
unearthed evidence of women's unwqual status and in the process conicned many perviously uninterested women that something should be done created a climate of expectations that something would be done
two significant events of the women's movement
friedan's the feminine mystique: stimulated women to question the status quo addition of sex to the 1964 civil rights act:
how did the women's liberation illustrate the importance of a network?
the conditions for a movement existed before a network came into being, but the movement didn't exist until afterward
origins of depersonalizations
attitudes held be us towards the ill lead to avoidance hierarchical structure of the hospital facilitates it reliance on medicine patient contact isnt a priority
gender identity disorder
strong and persistent cross gender identification (not merrely a desire for any percieved cultural advantages of being the other sex discomfor with their sex or sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex distrubance is not concurrent with a physical intersex condition disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social or other important areas of functioning
disturbance of gender identity disorder is manifested by...
stated desire to be the other sex preference for cross dressing or simulating the other sex's attire preferences for cross sex roles in make believe fantasies of being the other sex desire to participate in the stereotypical pastimes of the other sex preference for playmates of the other sex
act 60
a law that distributes tax money for primary and secondary public education equally across the state

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