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Business: Ch 10, 11, 12


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intrinsic reward
satisfaction from performing well and completing goals
extrinsic reward
given for recognition for good work (ex. pay increase, promotions)
scientific management
studying workers to find the most efficient methods and teaching those methods
time-motion studies
studies of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task
principle of motion economy
theory that every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions
Hawthorne effect
tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied
Maslow's hierarchy
theory of motivations based on unmet human needs
job factors that give employees to be productive and give them satisfaction
hygiene factors
job factors that cause dissatisfaction if missing, but do not necessarily motivate
job enrichment
strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself
job enlargement
job enrichment strategy that involves combining tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment
job rotation
job enrichment strategy that involves moving employees from one job to another
goal-setting theory
idea that setting ambitious but attainable goals will can motivate workers
management by objectives (MBO)
system of setting goals that involves discussion and review among managers/employees
expectancy theory
theory that the amount of effort employees put into a task depends on their expectations of the outcome
reinforcement theory
theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a persons behavior
equity theory
idea that employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions
human resource management
process of determining human resource needs and the recruiting, selecting, and scheduling workers
job analysis
study of what is done by employees who hold various job titles
job description
summary of the objectives of a job, the type of work, and duties
job specification
minimum qualifications required of workers
set of activities used to obtain a sufficient number of workers
process of gathering info and deciding who should be hired
contingent workers
workers who do not have the expectation of regular/full-time employment
training and development
an attempt to improve productivity by increasing ability to perform
employee orientation
activity that introduces a new employee to the other employees
on-the-job training
employee learns by doing, or watches other employees
apprentice program
training program in which a learner works alongside an experienced employee
off-the-job training
training that occurs away from the workplace
online training
training program in which employees "attend" classes via internet
vestibule training
training schools where employees are taught with equipment similar to that used on the job
job simulation
the use of equipment that duplicates job conditions and tasks
management development
process of training and educating employees to become managers
process of establishing contacts with key managers in an organization
experienced employee who coaches lower level employees
performance appraisal
evaluation in which the performance of an employee is measured against standards
fringe benefits
sick-leave, vacation, and health plans
cafeteria-style benefits
fringe benefits that allow employees to choose the benefits up to a set dollar amount
flextime plan
work schedule that gives employees some freedom choose work schedule
cora time
the period when all employees are expected to be at their job stations
compressed workweek
schedule that allows employees to work a full number of hours per week but in fewer days
job sharing
arrangment where two part-time employees share one full-time job
affirmative action
employment activities designed to "right past wrongs"
reverse discrimination
discrimination against whites or males in hiring/promoting
employee organization that negotiates benefits with management
craft union
an organization of skilled specialists in a particular trade
Knights of Labor
first national labor union (formed 1896)
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
an organization of craft unions that championed fundamental labor issues
industrial unions
labor organizations of unskilled and semi-skilled workers in mass-production industries
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
union organization of unskilled workers
yellow-dog contract
type of contract the requires employees to agree to not join a union
collective bargaining
process whereby union and management representatives form a labor-management contract
process whereby a union is recognized by the National Labor Relations Board
process by which workers take away a union's right to represent them
negotiated labor-management agreement (labor contract)
agreement that sets the terms under which management and labor agree to function
union security clause
states that employees who benefit from a union must either officially join or at least pay dues
closed shop agreement
employers can only hire current members for a job (is now illegal)
union shop agreement
employer can hire anyone, but they must join a union
agency shop agreement
employees don't need to join a union but must pay union fees
right-to-work laws
legislation that gives workers the right to join or not join a union
open shop agreement
employees don't have to join the union
a charge by employees that management is not abiding by the labor contract
shop stewards
union officials who work permanently in an organization and represent employee interests
bargaining zone
the range of options that each party can consider
encouraging both sides to continue negotiations and often make suggestions
agreement to bring in an impartial third party to render a binding decision in a dispute
union strategy in which workers refuse to go to work
cooling-off period
when workers return to their jobs while the union and management continue negotiations
primary boycott
when a union encourages members and the general public to not buy products from the company
secondary boycott
an attempt by labor to to convince others to stop doing business with the company
an attempt by management to put pressure on unions by temporarily closing the business
workers hired to temporarily replace the striking workers
court order directing someone to do or not do something
concessions made by union members to management
sexual harassment
unwelcome sexual advances in the work place

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