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Key Geographers and their concepts


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Carl Sauer
-Cultural Landscapes(visible imprint of human activity on the landscape) led to cultural ecology -Diffusion of Agricultural practices from a hearth
Thomas Malthus
World population would outstrip food supply(pop. increases geometrically, food supply increased arithmetically)
E.G. Ravenstein
Laws of Migration 1. REASONS: economic, cultural environmental push and pull factors 2.DISTANCE:internal,international 3.CHARACTERISTICS:of migrants:gender, family status
Immanuel Wallerstein
WORLD SYSTEMS THEORY: economy has one market,2.everything takes place within the the context of the world economy, structure is a three-tiered structure (core,periphery,semi-periphery)
Halford Mackinder
HEARTLAND THEORY OF GEOPOLITICS:Land based power would control the world after controlling Eastern Europe the \"pivot area\"
Johann von Thunen
Von Thunen\'s model described the spatial distribution of agricultural activities(products in rings around the central city based around the central city based on perishability and transportation costs
W.W. Rostow
DEVELOPMENT MODEL THROUGH INTERNATIONAL TRADE: 1. Traditional 2.Preconditions for take-off 4.Drive to Maturity 5. Age of mass consumption (MDCs in 4,5 LDCs in 1,2,3 pass through early stages, problems= uneven resources,market stagnation, increased dependence on MDCs)
Alfred Weber
LEAST COST THEORY MODEL: Factory location based on 1.Transportation 2.Labor 3.Agglomeration (clustering of industries to share facilities,people,services)
Walter Christaller
CENTRAL PLACE THEORY:Explains how services are distributed and why a pattern exists(market center for a market area or hinterland,hexagons used need to know the range and threshold)
Cocentric Zone model of urban structure
Sector Model
Harris and Ullman
Multiple Nuclei Model

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