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Biology Test 2


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 What is the structure of ATP?

Sugar with an adenine group attached and three phosphate groups. ie : a nucleotide

What are 2 functions of intermediary filaments?

What is an example of an intermediary filament protein? 

Helps position organelles & maintain cell shape

Lamins (in nucleus - gives it shape) 

What does enthalpy mean?

free energy?


Enthalpy - total energy

Free energy - usable energy

Entropy - unusable energy - the measure of disorder 

What is the function of the lysosome?

Where does this organelle originate? 

Digest material ingested by the cell -- contain many enzymes to digest macromolecules

originates in the golgi 

What is the name of the protein that makes up microfilaments?

What are the 2 functions of microfilaments? 


helps cell contract (ameba)

stabilizes cell shape 

Describe an experiment that shows proteins can move in membranes.
A mouse and human cell are mixed and fused together.  At first it is clear that the membrane bound proteins are still separated.  40 minutes later the proteins are all intermixed.
How can membranes affect diffusion? (permeable versus impermeable)
In a permeable membrane sustances can cross readily, but impermeable membranes do not allow things to cross freely.
How can the example of the steam locomotive explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics?
It shows energy can be transformed from coal to steam and finally work, but some of the energy is loast as heat or friction.
How does facilitated diffusion via channel proteins compare to facilitated diffusion via carrier proteins?
With channel proteins the molecule being transported doesn't bind to the channel, but molecules do bind to carrier proteins as they pass through the membrane.
Please describe the endosymbiont theory.  What evidence support the theory?
Origin of mitochondria & chloroplast -- large cell engulfs small cell & doesn't digest it -- small cell inside now has a new membrane from the large cell (they have 2 membranes) -- about the size of bacteria -- have their own DNA (circular lik
Please describe the fluid dynamic mosaic model of cell membrane.
sea of phospholipids with proteins floating in it
State the first law of thermodynamics.
Energy can be converted, but it can't be created or destroyed.
State the second law of thermodynamics.
When energy is converted from one form to another some of the energy becomes unavailable to do work.
What are four functions of cellular membranes?
*delineate cell & compartments inside *control over what enters/exits compartments (barrier) *process info *involved in energy transformation (make ATP)
What are integral versus peripheral membrane proteins?

integral - inserted into lipid bilayers, some actually go all the way across

peripheral - associated with membrane but not inserted into the bilaryer 

What are the overall characteristics of eukaryotic cells?

Larger & more complex

plasma membrane, cytoplasm & ribosomes; but also membrane bound compartments and a cytoskeleton; more organelles

What are the three functions of the plant cell vacuole?

water for turgor pressure -- store toxic materials (deter animals from eating plant) -- store anthocyanins (blue pigments); gives color to flowers (attracts pollinators) & fruit (attracts seed dispensers) 

What are the types of of passive membrane transport?

simple diffusion

facilitated diffusion


What are three functions of microtubules?

attach to chromosomes during cell division & move them-- position organelles-- microtubules can bind motor proteins that "walk" along microtubules & move material inside the cell 

What are three functions of the cytoskeleton?

gives cell shape

position cellular compartments

cell movement 

What do the following terms mean: isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic?

Isotonic refers to a solution that has an equal number of solutes on each side.  Hypotonic is a solution with less solutes on its side.  Hypertonic is the opposite.  These terms are relative and must be compared to something else. <

What happens to a plant cell when in an isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solution?
Nothing happens to the cell in an isotonic solution, but in a hypotonic solution cell takes up water, but doesn't lyse it just becomes more turgid (prevented by cell wall).  In a hypertonic solution the plasma membrane shrinks away from the cell
What happens to a red blood cell in an isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solution?

Isotonic - nothing  *Hypertonic solution - cell shrinks b/c all the water rushes out *hypotonic solution - cell lyses because all the water comes into the cell and causes it to burst

What is active transport?

It costs energy (ATP) to move things across a membrane.

The solutes are being moved up a concentration gradient. 

What is diffusion?
occurs from a region of high conectration to low concentration due to random movement of particles.
what is facilitated diffusion?
Particles are moved with membrane proteins (these proteins go all the way through the membrane)
What is osmosis? 

simple diffusion of water from high to low concentration

*** Remember: water is moving, not the particles 

What is simple diffusion?
small, non-polar molecules can cross the membrane
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Ribosome assembly
What is the function of the nucleus?

Stores genetic information

DNA + proteins = chromatin (not condensed, long strings) 

What is the function of the rough ER?

has ribosomes

synthesizes proteins to be secreted form the cell, inserted in membranes, or sent to another compartment 

What is the function of the smooth ER?

no ribosomes

site of lipid synthesis to make more phospholipids, steroids, & cholesterol -- also detoxifies toxic chemicals 

What is the structure & function of the golgi? 

sacs of membranes connected by vesicles

site where cargo is sorted & modified before being sent ot their destination 

What is the structure and function of chloroplasts?

Photosynthesis  -- contain chlorophyll

thylakoid membranes - site of light energy capture

stroma - site where carbon dioxide is captured & converted to sugars 

What is the structure and function of ER?
set of sacs & tubules made of membranes connected to the nucleus -- protein and lipid synthesis
What is the structure and function of ribosomes?

function - protein synthesis

structure - made of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein -- a small subunit & a large subunit 

What is the structure and function of the mitochondria?

Site where energy is converted to the form of ATP -- cellular respiration

2-8 micrometers -- about the size of bacteria 

What macromolecule makes up the cytoskeleton?
What organisms contain vacuoles?
Plants and some protista
What proteins make up microtubules?
What three types of plastids were presented in class?




Where in a cell can ribosomes be found?

cytoplasm (free-floating)

Attached to the ER 

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