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Life-Span Development 2


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What is Life-Span Development?
A pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues while alive
Historical Perspective
3 philisophical views of child development
1- Original sin
2- Tabula rasa
3- Innate goodness
Original sin
Middle ages, was believed child was born evil
Tabula rasa
17th century, philosopher John Locke, child born as a blank tablet and child developes characteristics thru life experiences
Innate goodness
18th century, French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, child is born good and needs to develop naturally with little parental involvement
Historical Perspective
2 views of Life-Span Development
Traditional approach-that mostg change occurs between birth and adolescence
Life-Span approach (life-span perspective)-that development occurs throughout life-span
Life-Span Perspective
7 characteristics:
1-development is life long
7-development involves growth
Life-Span Perspective
Development is life-long
individual continues to develop and change from conception to death
Life-Span Perspective
biological, cognitive, socioemotioanl components, each are important for development
Life-Span Perspective
Some components (bio,cog, socioem) may increase or develop while others stagnate. These will flip-flop
Life-Span Perspective
The capacity for change. Involves the degree to which characteristic remain stable or change
Life-Span Perspective
many pros invested in the study of life-span
Life-Span Perspective
Contextual and what are the 3 systems
Context is history, social, cultural aspects, biological, cognitive and physical aspects and enviro which influence upbringing.
Development is Contextual:
Normative age-graded influences
biological and envronmental influences similar for individuals in a specific age group. Strongest in childhood age group
Development is Contextual:
Normative history-graded influences
biological and environmental influences associated with history. Strongest in adolescence age group
Development is Contextual:
NON-Normative life events
(Events can be positive or negative.)
Unusual occurrences that have a major impact one's life
Life-Span Perspective
Development involves growth
Mastery of life involves conflicts and competition. The 3 goals of human developement are growth, maintenance and regulation
Contemporary Concerns
1- Health and well-being
2- Parenting
3- Education
Sociocultural contexts
5 concepts:
i. Cross-cultural studies
5- Socioeconomic Status (SES)
Development Processes and Periods
3 development processes
1-Biological processes
2-Cognitive processes
3-Socioemotional processes
Development Processes
Biological processes
changes that occur in the person's physical self: eye color, hair color, fat/skinny, size of foot
Development Processes
Cognitive processes
changes that occur in aperson's thought processes, intelligence and language: memory, learning, calculations, attention
Development Processes
Socioemotional processes
changes that occur in a person's emotions, personality, and relationships with others:
Periods of Development
8 periods:
1-Prenatal period
3-early childhood
4-middle and late childhood
6-early adulthood
7-middle adulthood
8-Late adulthood
Periods of Development
Prenatal period
from conception to birth
Periods of Development
birth to 18-24 months
Periods of Development
Early Childhood
from 18-24 mos to 5-6 yrs; called "preschool years"
1st grade marks end
Periods of Development
Middle & Late childhood
from 6-11 yrs old; called "elementary school years"
fundamental skills: reading, writing, math are mastered; self-control increases
Periods of Development
from 10-12 yrs to 18-22 yrs; start of "puberty," sexual characteristics; pursuit of independence and identity; thought is more logical, abstract, idealistice
Periods of Development
Early adulthood
begins in late teens, early 20's to 30's;
time of establishing economic independence, carrers, selecting a mate, starting family
Periods of Development
Middle adulthood
35-45 yrs old to 60's;
expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility, reaching and maintaining career; assisting next generation
Periods of Development
Late adulthood
from 60's/70's to death;
adjustment period to declining health & strength, life review, retirement, adjustment to new social roles
Conception of Age
Neugarten states we are an age-irrelevant society
Chronological age: actual years alive, since birth
Biological age: age in terms of health, vital capacity
Psychological age: adaptive capacities compared to others same chrono age
Social age: social roles and expectations related to a person' age.
Developmental Issues
nature vs nurture
nature: biological inheritance are the most importanct influences
nurture: a perosn's environmental experiences are the most important influences
Developmental Issues
continuity vs discontinuity
Continuity: gradual, cumulative changes that occur from conception to death (quantitative)
Discontinuity: Distict stages of development (qualitative) that a child moved from not being able to think abstractly to being able to, like out of 'nowhere' it happens.
Developmental Issues
Stability and Change
Stability: we develop to what we are due to early yrs experiences
Change: we develop into someone different because of early experiences
In other words, do we change as we age?
Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory
Children actively construct their understanding of the world and go thru 4 stages
Piagets Theory
4 stages of cognitive development
Piagets Theory
2 ways we adapt
Assimilation: person incorporates new info into existing knowledge
Accomodation: person adjust to new information
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Cognitive Theory
Like Piaget theory, children construct onw knowldege; however social interaction and culture play important roles. SOCIAL AND CULTURE guide cognitive development.
Can't seperate development from social and cultural activities. That memory, attn and reasoning is learned to use societies tools: language, math, computers, etc
If children interact w/more-skilled adults and peers, they will advance in cognitive development.
The Info-Proc Theory
Individuals develop a gradual capacity for prcessing info, which allows for increased complex knowledge ans skills. When Individuals process, encode, represent, store, and retrieve info, they are thinking
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
3 versions
These versions dictate that development can be learned thru experience with environ, i.e. observable behavior.
1-Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
2-Skinner's Operant Conditioning
3-Bandura's Social Cognitive theory
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
the neutral stimulus (the bell) can now produce the response originally produced by another (the food)
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
Skinner's Operant conditioning
Behavior followed by a reward stimuli is more likely to recur, where as a behavior followed by a negative stimuli will less likely recur
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
Bandura's Social cognitive theory
Development through observation learning (imitation/modeling).
Reciprocal relationship between behavior, ex: child will do as parent does, teacher does, who they observe.
Ethological Theory
Behavior is strongly influenced by biology.
There are experiences that occur in special time frames that should be experienced by individual for normal developement
Ecological Theory
Development is emphasized by environmental factors:
MICORSYSTEM: individual lives and has input
MESOSYSTEM: Family relation to this system of school, community
EXOSYSTEM: Individual in social system but has no input
MACROSYSTEM:The culture the individual lives in
CHRONOSYSTEM: Sociohistorical, environmental events nd transition over the life course.

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