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Executive Branch


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12th Amendment
Electoral College will elect both the President and VP in a single election
How is president chosen
electoral college
how is governor chosen
popular vote
qualifications for governor
citizen of the US, attained 35, been a resident of the commonwealth and a registered voter in the commonwealth for 5 years next preceding the election
22nd amendment
sets a term limit for the US
25th amendment
establishes procedures for filling vacancy in the office of the VP
Three differences between presidents and prime ministers
Presidents are outsiders; presidents choose cabinet members from outside Congress; presidents have no guaranteed majority in the legislature
Divided government
government in which one party controls the White House and a different party controls one or both houses of Congress
Unified government
same party controls White House and Congress
Representative democracy
people elect representatives to act on their behald
direct democracy
people legislate for themselves
concerns of the founders
president would use militia to overpower state gov'ts; could become a tool of the Senate
First presidents
appointed people of stature in the community; president was meant to be kept simple
Jacksonian era
vetoed 12 acts of Congress; believed in a strong and independent presidency
Powers of the president
commander in chief of the armed forces, commission officers of the armed forces, grant reprieves and pardons for federal offenses, convene congress in special sessins, receive ambassadors, take care that the laws be faithfully executed, wield the executiv
powers of president shared with senate
make treaties, appoint ambassadors, judges, and high officials
Pyramid structure
used by Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton  assistants report through a hierarchy to a chief of staff who then deals directly with the president; provides for an orderly flow of information and decisions but does so at the risk of isolating or
Circular structure
used by Carter, cabinet secretaries and assistants report directly to the president; has the virtue of giving the president a great deal of information but at the price of confusion and conflict among cabinet secretaries and assistants
Ad hoc structure
used for a while by Clinton, task forces, committees and informal groups of friends and advisers deal directly with the president; allows great flexibility, minimizes bureaucratic inertia, and generates ideas and information from disparate channels but ri
Executive office of the president
composed of agencies that report directly to the president; appointments must receive Senate confirmation
Principal agencies of the executive office
Office of Management and Budget; Central Intelligence Agency; Council of Economic Advisers; Office of Personnel Management; Office of the US Trade Representative
Most important executive office and what does it do
Office and Management and Budget; assembles the budget, develops reorganization plans, reviews legislative proposals of agencies
cheif executives of the executive branch departments
Name cabinets
State, treasury, defense, justice, interior, agriculture, commerce, labor, health and human services, housing and urban development, transportation, energy, education, veterans affairs
Power to persuade aimed at three audiences:
Fellow politicians/leaders, party activists/officeholders outside Washington, public
Veto message
statement that the president sends to Congress accompanying the bill within ten days after the bill has been passed (with it, he sets forth his reasons and signature)
Pocket veto
if president does not sign the bill within ten days and Congress has adjourned, then the bill will not become law
Budget Reform act
requires president to notify Congress of funds he does not intend to spend; congress must agree in 45 days to delete them; requires president to notify congress of delays in spending
role of VP
Presides over Senate and votes in case of tie
executive agencies
outside the structure of the cabinet departments
executive privelege
claim by the president that consultations with advisers are confidential and need not be disclosed to the courts of Congress
implied powers
asserted by virtue of office
lame duck
politician whose power has been diminished because he or she is about to leave office as a result of electoral defeat or statutory limitation
presidential recommendations to cut parts of appropriations bills

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