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Chapter 8 Questions


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What is an abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenomena?
There are two types of theories: __________, __________, _________, and ________.
Classical theory
Descriptive theory
Grand theory
Middle-range theory
What is a Classical Theory?
An abstract generalization that systematically explains relationships among phenomena.
What is a Descriptive theory?
A theory that thoroughly describes a phenomenon, based on rich observations of it
What is a Grand theory?
A theory that attempts to explain large aspects of human experiences
What is a Middle-range theory?
A theory that focuses on a specific aspect of human experience (e.g., stress)
What are Conceptual Models?
~Deal with abstractions, assembled in a coherent scheme
~Represent a less formal attempt to explain phenomena than theories
~Do not have formal propositions about relationships among phenomena
What is a Framework?
The overall conceptual underpinnings of a study
What are the 2 type of frameworks?
Theoretical framework and Conceptual framework
What is a Conceptual framework?
A study that is based on a conceptual model
What is a Theoretical framework?
based on theory
What are the Commonalities between Theories and Conceptual Models?
~use concepts as building blocks
~require conceptual definitions of key concepts
~can be depicted in schematic models
~are created by humans
~are developed inductively
~cannot be proved—they are supported to greater or lesser degrees
~can be used to generate hypotheses
~can serve as a stimulus to research
What are the four concepts central to models of nursing?
What are two Conceptual models of nursing?
Roy’s Adaptation Model
Orem’s Self-Care Model
What are two other models developed by nurses:
~Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM)
~Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Theory
What are four examples of Non-Nursing Models Used by Nurse Researchers? (Shared theories)
~Becker’s Health Belief Model (HBM)
~Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory of Stress and Coping
~Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
~Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
What are the Theories in Qualitative Research?
~Substantive theory
~Theory embedded in a research tradition
-Grounded theory
What is Substantive theory?
conceptualizations of the target phenomena
What is the use of Theories or Models in Quantitative Research?
~Testing a theory
~Testing two competing theories
~Testing a theory-based intervention
~Using a theory/model as an organizing structure
~Fitting a problem into theory after-the-fact (not recommended)
A set of logically interrelated propositions is associated with a:
Classical theory
The power of theories lies in their ability to:
Explicate the nature of the relationships that exist among phenomena
The overall purpose of a theory is to:
Make scientific findings meaningful and generalizable
The building blocks of theory are:
The major similarity between theories and conceptual models is that both:
Use concepts as their building blocks
The Health Promotion Model would best be described as a:
Middle-range theory
Which of the following is not a central concept in conceptual models of nursing?
A) Person
B) Social support
C) Health
D) Environment
Social support
The nurse-theorist Orem developed the:
Model of Self-Care
The nurse-theorist Roy developed the:
Adaptation Model
The nurse-theorist Mishel developed the:
Uncertainty in Illness Model
Lazarus and Folkman's Theory of Stress and Coping is an example of:
A shared theory
An ideational theory is a type of theory that might be used in a(n):
Classical theories offer an explanation not only of the relationship between variables but also of the nature of the relationship.
Descriptive theories can involve a thorough description or classification of a single phenomenon.
Deductive reasoning is the basic intellectual process used in developing a theory.
Theories can never be positively proved.
Failure of research to disconfirm a theory increases support for the theory.
Grounded theory is to descriptive theory as a schematic model is to a statistical model.
A conceptual framework may be defined as a well-formulated deductive system of abstract formal propositions.
Research projects that are not based on theory have little utility to the nursing profession.
Schematic models attempt to represent reality with a minimal use of words.

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