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Thinking, Language, and Intelligence


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5 components of creativity
  1. Expertise
  2. Imaginative thinking skills
  3. Venturesome personality
  4. Intrinsic motivation
  5. Creative environment
Analytical Intelligence
the ability to analyze and evaluate ideas, solve problems and make decisions
no inherent connection between symbols of a language and the meaning they convey
Availability heuristic
likelihood judged based on their availability in memory
Belief bias
preexisting beliefs distort logical reasoning
Belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conception, even after their basis has been discredited
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering (all of which are behaviors)
Cognitive complexity
the degree to which the learner must use different mental (cognitive) processesing in order to answer a question
Concept formation
the development of the ability to respond to common features of categories of objects or events
mental categories for objects, events, or ideas that have a common set of features
Confirmation Bias
we seek information that confirms our own preconceptions
Content Validity
evidence of validity gained by showing that the test content is representative of a specified behavior
Creative Intelligence
involves going beyond what is given to generate novel and interesting ideas
Crystallized Intelligence
The repertoire of information, cognitive skills, and strategies acquired by the application of fluid intelligence to various fields
Definition of Mental Retardation
Disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills
Deprivation Effects
Children in impoverished environments have lower IQs
communicating about anything other than the present moment
Emotional Intelligence
the innate potential to feel, use, communicate, recognize, remember, learn from, manage and understand emotions
Extensive Support
Regular, daily support is required in at least some environments
(e.g. daily home-living support)
inability to see a problem from a new perspective
Flexibility of symbols
because they're arbitrary, we can give symbols meaning
Fluid Intelligence
The ability, which is said to decline with age, to deal with essentially new problems
Flynn effect
An effect observed worldwide over the last several decades in which IQ scores seem to be rising
the way an issue is posed
Functional fixedness
tendency to think of things only in terms of intended functions or purposes
system of rules that enable us to communicate
relying on past experiences
Influences on Intelligence
  • Genetics
  • Environment
  • Ethnicity
  • Gender
answer comes to you through some unexplainable revelation
A mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Intelligence Quotient
a score derived from a set of standardized tests that were developed with the purpose of measuring a person's cognitive abilities
Intermittent Support
Support is not always needed. It is provided on an "as needed" basis and is most likely to be required at life transitions (e.g. moving from school to work)
Limited Support
Consistent support is required, though not on a daily basis. The support needed is of a non-intensive nature
Linguistic Determinism
Language determines the way we think
Mental age
the level of intellectual development as measured by an intelligence test
Mental Set
tendency to approach a problem in a specific way, expecially if it's been successful in the past
smallest unit that carries meaning
Noam Chomsky and Inborn Universal Grammar
proposes that the human brain contains a predefined mechanism (universal grammar) that is the basis for the acquisition of all language
Normal Distribution
bell curve
tendency to be more confident than correct
Pervasive Support
Daily extensive support, perhaps of a life-sustaining nature, is required in multiple environments
smallest distinctive sound unit
Practical Intelligence
the ability that individuals use to find the best fit between themselves and the demands of the environment
Predictive Validity
The accuracy of the prediction of a criterion value, based on a predictor value
Problem Solving
The cognitive process through which information is used to reach a goal that is blocked by some obstacle
language is creative, not repetetive
the BEST example or cognitive representation of something within a certain category
Psychological tests must be
  • Standardized
  • Reliable
  • Valid
Representativeness heuristic
judge likelihood in terms of how well the event matches one's prototype
Savant Syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
rules by which we derive meaning
Standardization group
The group against which an individual’s test score is evaluated
ruels for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences

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