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Western Civ Semester II

a comprehensive guide to the second semester of civ which will be updated continuously with names, dates, terms, quotes, and more. send me a pm if you want something added


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Symphony No. 5
a work by Beethoven displaying motivic consistency, psychological progresion, and rhythmic drive
designer of the grand Parisian opera house
Tycho Brahe
the first astronomer to have an observatory (and perhaps my favorite scientist as well)
a Dutch painter famous for his group portraits
prepared piano
an invention of John Cage in which something is done to piano strings before they are played
French painter, Gericault's "successor"
a German "master of styles"
public sphere
idea of free discussion/debate
National Assembly
"Pecuniary privileges, personal or real, in the payment of taxes are abolished forever. Taxes shall be collected from all the citizens, and from all property, in the same manner, and in the same form. " (governmental body that wrote).
basso continuo
bass, harmony, and rhythm, the "crust" of the Baroque pizza
leader of the Jacobins, known for a reign of terror
Immanuel Kant
"Through laziness and cowardice a large part of manking, even after nature has freed them from alien guidance gladly remain immature." (1775)
a philosopher who tried to connect existence and thought (breaking a few big laws of philosophy while at it)
opera writer during italian unification
society's restricrtions on id
De Chirico
mysterious and melancholic fantasy painter
anti-artistic artistic movement
Napoleonic Wars
Napoleon's desire to take over
the new social class of urban workers
Russian musical nationalist
an early ecstatic modernist
bourgeoisie king
market system
the idea developed in the industrial revolution of selling surplus agriculture
"Money brings everything to you; even your daughters." (1830s)
"Having arrived at any certanties in physics, we ought to utilize these as the most appropriate aids in the true exposition of the Bible and in the investigation of those meanings which are necessarily contained herein, for these must be concordant with demonstrated truths." (1615)
da capo
literally "from the top"
the way that europe let germany get back some land without defending it at all
the body of a sonata essay
a Polish-born writer of character pieces (ie nocturnes) and dances
distortionist surrealist painter
there is no external validity to set moral values
Anything Goes, composer
Means of Production
what the bourgeoisie own
gestural style
Pollock's style of painting based on artist's motion
early Italian romantic nationalist
the pre-scientific revolution attempt to bring together science and religion
an English scientist famous for the theories of natural selection and evolution
comedia dell'arte
a production with a plot involving someone from a lower class having the upper hand
La Grande Jatte
the Seurat painting composed primarily of dots of color
"My power proceeds from my reputation, and my reputation from the victories I have won." (author)
idee fixe
Berlioz's idea of transforming a theme throughout the symphony to give it meaning (no accent)
Death of Sardanapalus
Delacroix brings us a very fancy suicide (1827)
Berlin Wall
"To call it a wall doesn't really do it justice."
Salon de Refuses
the museum of rejected artwork
Archduke Ferdinand
Austro-Hungarian archduke assasinated in serbia
"We are to admit no more causes of natural thigns than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances." (1700)
"This evil may be described in one word - presumption; the natural effect of the rapid progression of the human mind towards the perfectiong of so many things. This it is which at the present day leads so many individuals astray, for it has become an almost universal sentiment." (1820, political philosophy)
Insane Woman
one of a series of Gericault paintings about people in asylums
the Rauschenberg with a goat that might mean nothing at all
a section of a fugue in which the subject is not present
Les Desmoiselles d'Avignon
the original cubist painting (1900s)
first style of jazz
Truman Doctrine
"I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." (document)
chamber music
"domestic" music with a person for each part
exit aria
when one by one a character sings an aria and leaves until the stage is empty
July Ordinances
a set of conservative laws passed by Charles X
pierrot lunaire
schoenberg's clown
crowded apartments in which urban workers lived
cold war
USA vs USSR, yuck
triple entente
France, Britain, Russia
a style with emphasis on how the eye sees light
"Island of Cythera" painter
a spot in which Enlightenment scholars gathered to discuss&debate
style of reducing art down to formal elements
principle of individual authority
"The races of mankind are markedly different in nature, and also in the extent of their gift, and the Germanic races belong to the most highly gifted group, the group usually termed Aryan." 1900
John Locke
"This legislative is not only the supreme power of the commonwealth, but sacred and unalterable in the hands where the community have once placed it." (1700)
Cupid Held A-Captive
a painting where things aren't looking good for Cupid. Or are they?
dissonant US composer - Holidays Symphony
formal elements mnemonic- color-light-perspective composition-line-paint (medium)
Grande Odalisque
an early romantic erotic work by Ingres
"... individuals having any advantage, however slight, over others ... have the best chance of surviving and procreating their kind" (1859)
"The immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all the other proleterian parties: formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proleteriat." (1848)
a Spanish painter who lead the transition to the Romantic period
ends WW2 by bombing Japan
The Swing
"the receiver general of the goods offered by the clergy" enough said.
a medium-tempo ABA dance
"But, you tell me, you cannot attempt united action, distinct and divided as you are in language, customs, tendencies, and capacity. The individual is too insignificant, and Humanity too vast." (1860)
bel canto
beautiful singing in opera
taking motive apart
a composer who painted musical portraits of himself and his wife
the Irrationalist philosopher
artist of many styles, most famous for cubism
liked the English idea of govt.
a Dutch genre painter
string quartet
violins, viola, and cello, later accompanied by the piano
Extreme Nationalism
the beginnings of racism/antisemitism- nationalism to the Aryan race
artist who used almost nothing but cubism
Raft of the Medusa
a Gericault painting about somewhat hopeful shipwrecked people (1818)
Schroon Mountain
an American romantic landscape painting of a triangular mountain, with hidden people (1830)
an early Illuminatus who believed in democracy
a post-impressionist painter who couldn't stay in the same place
The Four Seasons
Vivaldi's work of 4 concertos set to sonnets
No Man's Land
unused space between trenches
a neoclassical French revolutionary painter
Bavarian Illuminati
a society (re)started by Adam W(hose surname I cant spell) that emphasized ownership of life liberty and property
"The civilized man, is he whom experience and social life have enabled to draw from nature the means of his own happiness..." (1775)
the concept of a god creating the universe, but stopping at that
"Required, as we are universally, to support and obey the laws, nature and reason entitle us to demad that in the making of the laws the universal voice shall be implicitly listened to."(1838, polit philo)
Rain, Steam, and Speed
trains, weather, bridges, and a rabbit? (1840)
the melody of a fugue
Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834
the aftermath of a workers' protest, 1834
british leader who decides to fight WW2
concerto grosso
a concerto featuring multiple soloists
art songs for piano
English satirical painter of aristocracy
genre painting
a Dutch style of painting emphasizing everyday life
"... we must call those spurious philanthropists who, to prevent present misery, would entail greater misery on future generations." (1851, author)
"Prices have been soaring everywhere for months, and the poverty is even greater than it was during the war."
what England used with its industry to gain wealth
the returning part played by the orchestra that starts and ends a piece
German Revolution of 1848
"At Cologne, on the 3rd of March, the populace assembled in crowds before the Stadthaus, or town hall, where the town council were sitting, and demanded the concession of certain rights, which were inscribed on slips of paper and handed about amongst the mob... The military were, however, called out, and the streets were cleared without much difficulty."
Italian Futurists
artists who thought italy should stop living in Rome's past
walking bass
bass that plays in equal units
systemized form of imitative polyphony
Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera
a Rococo painting about people and their lovers
the composer who takes us into the Romantic period
a classical 4 movt musical form that goes fast-slow-dance-fast
Revolution of Proleteriat
Marx's belief that the lower classes would eventually take over
Top Gun Alley resident & composer
a woodcut, 1890s
the philosophy that humans are not rational by nature
Spirit of the Dead Watching
a reclining nude about to die
same steps between notes
the radical group in the National Assembly, controlled the radical phase of revolution
Tahiti Paintings
paintings Gaugin did while in Tahiti
retrograde inversion
one of schoenberg's inventions: taking a series, playing it backwards, and taking every note down a key
Victor Emmanuel
first king of unified Italy
Nietzshe's idea of someone to who society's principles didnt apply
the key-banging composer
Family of Charles IV
an 1800 Goya portrait of a royal family
Total War
war in which the whole population is in some way involved
letting art be made of the first thing that comes to mind
Brandenburg Concertos
Bach's writings for the visiting royalty (1725)
a German philosopher who believed strongly in equality and lower-class rights
"The Swing" painter
Origin of Species
Darwin's first book about natural selection
worked with ragtime
a musical love story set in Egypt
a romantic landscape artist known for his somewhat macabre depictions of nature
John Locke
life, liberty, and property
Thomas Paine
"My own mind is my own church." (1800)
Ludwig II
german king that wagner impresses
the compiler of the 28 book enlightenment encyclopedia
tries to make ties to France via war with Austria
"The russians are fighting desperately like wild beasts, don't give themselves up, but come up close and then throw grenades. "(WW2, author)
a Baroque concerto-writer who taught at an orphanage
a controversial realist painter of nudes
a period based off of the scientific revolution that emphasized rationality in society and politics
Oath of the Tennis Court
a David painting about a very excited group of people (1789)
"A measure of government... may be said to be conformable to or dictated by the principle of utility, when in like manner the tendency which it has to augment the happiness of the community is greater than any which it has to diminish it" (1789, author)
the father of the viennese classical style, known for string quartets and symphonies, as well as for his jokes
political philosophy associated with Metternich based on keeping traditions
Yellow Christ
a religious painting which an unrealistic choice of color
Natural Selection
the theory that organisms with desirable traits survive
the 44th president of the United States
"I can understand how it was that men worn out by the turmoil of the Revolution, and afraid of that liberty which had long been associated with death, looked for repose under the dominion of an able ruler on whom fortune was seemingly revolved to smile." (who is the able ruler?)
"What did it remind me of? Of the War, of the worst periods of starvation in 1917 and 1918, but even then, people paid for their potatoes..." (Interwar years)
Russian Revolution
"The Provisional Government wishes to add that it has no intention of taking advantage of the existence of war conditions to delay the realization of the above-mentioned measures of reform." (event described)
a concert featuring only one soloist/virtuoso
a critic of Irrationalism
the subconscious, irrational force
au plein air
the new custom of painting outdoors
"Liberty and justice consist of restoring all that belongs to others; thus, the only limits on the exercise of the natural rights of woman are perpetual male tyranny; these limits are to be reformed by the laws of nature and reason."
opera buffa
Mozart's not-so-serious opera
Slave Ship
a painting of some slaves not arriving to their destination (1840)
Le Dejeuner
(first two words) painting about a woman who took of her clothes at a picnic. 1860
Declaration of Independence
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal... with certain unalienable rights... life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." (document without article)
Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance
Arp's 1916 lucky collage
"... the nation should hereafter be subject only to such laws and taxes as it shall itself freely ratify." (1789), the "genre" of the quote
Napoleonic Code
laws written by Napoleon, such as free religion, that applied to everyone equally
the French style period dating around 1750 that is more scaled back that the Baroque
The sobering lesson was that war could happen without anybody seeming to want it or will it." (world war 1, author)
art involving tapping into the subconscious
the intro of a sonata essay
World War I
Austria and allies vs Balkans and allies
molding brushstrokes onto the canvas so that they seem raised
romanticism mnemonic: macabre-emotional-artistic fusion-nature nostalgia-unique-revolt-supernatural-exoticism
a Morisot painting about a household activity, emphasizing lighting, 1880s
Testimony for the Factory Act of 1833
"I have observed frequently children carried to factories, unable to walk, and that entirely owing to excessive labour and confinement." (name of document)
Friar by the Sea
Friedrich's godlike depiction of nature (1820)
Until Death
a 1798 Goya painting about a woman searching for her youth
steam engine
an invention that enabled factories to be located anywhere
Concordat of 1801
an agreement Napoleon made with the pope
mystic abyss
wagnerian orchestra pit
later American modernist who simplified music to preserve serenity
a Romantic composer who had some really strange ideas, some of which came from Beethoven
visual shorthand
the use of the minimal possible amount of brushstrokes
The Communist Manifesto
a description of a political theory that likes equality, the working class, and realy doesn't like private property
Louis XV
the French king who decided to move from Versailles to Paris
Disasters of War
a series of etchings by Goya satiricizing war
the idea of not accepting truth without verification
Sans Culottes
non-nobles not in the assembly, who also lacked nice pants
a singer in the most popular group of Baroque opera
Coronation of Napoleon
an 1805 David painting of Napoleon set in Notre Dame (or was it the Temple of Reason?)
style of music with time controlled by chance
"Even for a very ordinary housewife living with her baby in the west end, St Paul's could never for long be out of her mind."
Arctic Shipwreck
a painting about a huge block of ice, and a ship off to the side somewhere (1815)
"I can understand how it was that men worn out by the turmoil of the Revolution, and afraid of that liberty which had long been associated with death, looked for repose under the dominion of an able ruler on whom fortune was seemingly revolved to smile." (1800- author)
painter, Nighthawks
a triple AA BA BA dance
in fugue, the eventual harmonization of the parts
Death of Socrates
a David painting about a very honorable suicide (1787)
Debussy's dissonant masterpiece
Oath of the Horatii
a David history painting about a family involved with war (1784)
a half-realist half-impressionist painter
"The wealth of the whole community is composed of the wealth of the several individuals belonging to it taken together." (1798, polit philo)
power loom
a water-powered machine used to produce textiles
militant patriotism
public support of WWI
the scientist/astronomer who began to accept the idea of natural rather than religious law - though he ended up getting into trouble with the latter
Abstract Expressionist who incorporated dancing into his work in a slightly different way than Degas
sent a controverisal telegram
a term referring to the electricity with which the war operated
"... if she be not prepared by education to become the companion of man, she will stop the progress of knowledge and virtue..." (1800)
Austro-Prussian War
a war during which Bismarck seizes the northern parts of Germany
"The USA decided to take advantage of the economic and political difficulties in the other leading capitalist countries and bring them under its sway." (cold war, author)
Fantastic Symphony
one of the first symphonies to actually mean something, Berlioz
Total War
"The food question is always the most important topic of the day. The less there is of it, the more do we talk of it." (1917, concept
"This evil may be described in one word - presumption; the natural effect of the rapid progression of the human mind towards the perfectiong of so many things. This it is which at the present day leads so many individuals astray, for it has become an almost universal sentiment." (1820, author)
location on Balkan peninsula, Bartok's area of study
the incomprehensible head of the new vienesse trinity
White Man's Burden
the racist and socially darwinistic idea that white men are supposed to civilize the savages in Asia and Africa
"The end is not only the end of the freedom of the peoples oppresed by the Jew, but also the end of its parasite upon the nations." (1920)
League of Combat
Mussolini's coup
a sicilian romantic nationalist
the father of the color field styles of painting
speech song
a song with the music to it written in appropriate pitches
a type of religious (old testament), less theatrical opera
pushing the boundaries of art
opera seria
Handel's serious opera
"The first rule was never to receive anything as a truth which I did not clearly know to be such." (1625)
Van Gogh
the earless crazy guy who also painted
The Hay Wain
an 1821 bucolic painting by Constable
"Many measures which we have adopted to the great blessing of our country are Socialistic and the state will have to accustom itself to a little more Socialism yet." (1860)
"..virtue without which terror is murderous, terror without which virtue is powerless..."
Thermidorean Reaction
the aftermath of the revolution
Handel's most famous oratorio
Wagner's opera house
"The Munich agreement was a tragically misconcieved and desperate act at the cost of the Czechoslovak state... in the vain hope that it would satisfy Hitler's stormy ambition and thus secure for Europe a peaceful future."
"They were men confronted with real problems, doing their best in the circumstances of their time." (Taylor, who were they?)
Bartok/Kodaly philo of using trad. folk songs in new pieces
"Dulce et decorum est pro patria morir" (world war 1, author)
Great Depression
1929 stock market crash and the problems that followed
Congress of Vienna
gathering of aristocrats to try to bring back ideas of revolution (1815)
Pop Art painter, flags
Mary Casatt
American Impressionist painter
Truman Doctrine
US has to stop evil commies from getting everywhere
Arthur Young
"One opinion pervaded the whole company, that they are on the eve of some great revolution in the government: tjat everything points to it: the confusion in the finances great..." (1789)
"Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole." (1750)
Danish War
the first part of German unification
Napoleon Crossing the Alps
an 1800 David equestrian portrait of Napoleon
an indefinite rest within a musical piece
Woman With Coffee Pot
a conical woman and a cyllindrical coffee pot
the Aryans need more of this
an early astronomer who came up with Epicycles - the solar system is composed of bodies moving in small irregular patterns
Picasso's grand war mural
a small part of a melody moved about the scales
an Austrian trying to restore balance in europe
synthetic cubism
building up a form with large basic shapes (ie collage)
musical impressionist
free enterprise
private property based system
piece that is in a set key
a secret Enlightenment society, a predecessor of the modern-day Illuminati
"The Third Estate embraces then all that which belongs to the nation; and all that which is not the Third Estate, cannot be regarded as being of the nation. What is the Third Estate? It is the whole." (1789)
Open Door Policy
the American policy preventing interference in trade with Asia
John Cage
aleatory composer who based work on zen teachings
Moulin de la Galette
a scene of a busy dance "club"
Migrant Mother
1936 Lange photograph of an unhappy worker
the first astronomer to consider the heliocentric system
Stone Breakers
a family who break stones all day. 1849
cubist to dada artist, known for his pretty urinal
tonality on top of tonality
a French military leader who took over the govt. after the Revolution
"The philosopher forms his principles upon an infinity of individual observations." (1750)
Quinine Prophylaxis
cure for malaria-enabled imperialism to happen
Triple Alliance
Germany. Austria-Hungary, Italy
expressing emotions in art
Estates General
parliament representing the three estates
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
"The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to opression." (full name of document)
New Imperialism
a type of imperialism largely based on conquest of Africa and Asia
Belgian Congo
one of the first imperialistic colonies in Africa, established at the beginning of scramble
Treaty of Versailles
ended WWI
Third of May 1808
an 1814 Goya painting about the Spanish resistance to Napoleon
"The spirit of self-help is the root of all general growth in the individual; and, exhibited in the lives of many, it constitutes the true source of national vigor and strength." (1860)
Wilhelm II
Bismarck's successor
New Deal
FDRs state political intervention program
complete govt. control of life
eptiomical Impressionist and series painter
ode to joy
the first symphony (actually, movement of a symphony) to incorporate a chorus/soloists
analytical cubism
painting from multiple perspectives
Newman's stripes
govt. has little say in economy
"The English constitution has, in fact, arrived at that point of excellence, in consequence of which all men are restored to their natural rights, which, in nearly all monarchies, they are deprived of." (1775)
a British opera composer
Eroica Symphony
what Beethoven originally wrote for Napoleon
committee of public safety
the french revolutionary KGB
Russian revolution
1917 event causing russia to leave WWI
motoric rhythm
a constant, quick-moving rhythm
Franco-Prussian War
the result of this war caused the Austrians to leave Germany
"Our life, our wealth, and our talents do not belong to us. It is to the nation, la patrie, that all that belongs."
post Napoleonic French king
Marshall Plan
US has to stop evil commies in order to rebuild post ww2 europe
Night Watch
Rembrandts militia (1650)
Burial of Ornans
Courbet painting about a very normal funeral
Pearl Harbor
1941 event leading to US war involvement
austian scientist famous for his work on psychoanalysis
"As to the government's police abroad, it haad two essential objects, namely, to watch friendly powers, and counteract hostile governments." (1800 author)
taking from the Japanese style
Beaux art
French style of artistic beauty
small musical idea that represnts something
Birth of Venus
Cabarel's depiction of a goddess
Seurat's pointed invention
devotion to la patrie
musical form of an essay
"To be useful, a woman must have feeling." (1840s)
Night Cafe
a van gogh painting about a midnight home with an unstable pool table
Social Darwinism
"... we must call those spurious philanthropists who, to prevent present misery, would entail greater misery on future generations." (1851, theory)
the B minuet in the movement
the system in which planents move around the sun rather than the earth
a total musical beast who wrote like 600 pieces in his 35 years
turkish land - main group Serbs
Social Darwinism
the belief that characteristics like social classes are inherited
a painter fascinated at one point by ballerinas
Berlin Conference
Bismarck's conference in which he established an "occupy to claim" policy
sound poem
dada style song based on repititions of sound
a Manet reclining nude/prostitute
"The food question is always the most important topic of the day. The less there is of it, the more do we talk of it." (1917, author)
post-impressionist shape-based painter
Abbey in the Oak Forest
some monks and some gothic arch. make up this 1810 painting
democratic centralism
communist democracy
leader of Pop Art style who often never even touched his work
a composer of music dramas living during german unification known for his antisemitism
American Gothic
father, daughter, a window, and a pitchfork, 1930 wood
a Romantic French artist known for painting the macabre, as well as for his political critiques
a romantic composer who wrote recitals, character pieces, and lots of virtuosity
Munich Conference
a failed pre-ww2 peace conference
American painter, what's up with his lightning bolt?
Trench Warfare
fighting from trenches
Painter, Migration Series
William I
king of Prussia during German unification
Anderson & Zinsser
"In the salon, a woman could meet and marry a man of superior social rank or wealth." (1988)
"The idea of perpetual peace is an illusion supported by those of weak character. It has always been the weary, spirited, and exhausted ages which had played with the dream of perpetual peace."
a Schubert lied about a happy little elf and the fun games he plays with a little boy
"See, too, these emerge from the bowels of the earth! Infants of four and five years of age, many of them girls, pretty and still soft and timid,; entrusted with the fullfilment of responsible duties, the very nature of which entails on them the necessity of being the earliest to enter the mine and the latest to leave it." (1850)
Ring Cycle
4 operas, 16 hours
Harlem Renaissance
artistic movement of the 1920s and 30s during the black migration
Marriage a la Mode
a series of 6 Hogarth paintings about a not-so-successful marriage
Ballet Rehearsal on Stage
a not-so-graceful gathering of graceful dancers, 1870s
a romantic style of tempo, in which time is "robbed" - that is, it is flexible and changing
Carlsbad Decrees
"The confederated governments mutually pledge themselves to remove from the universities...all teachers who... propagate harmful doctines hostile to public order or subversive of existing governmental institutions..." (1819)
Reinsurance Treaty
short-lived peace treaty with russia
Real politik
the realist system of Nationalism based on Machiavelli
character piece
a short piano piece with a descriptive title
the location of a prison stormed during the beginning of the french revolution
Italian fascist military leader
the conclusion of a sonata essay
Death of Marat
a David painting about a guy who got killed in the tub (1793)
ground bass
basso ostinato, a type of musical form in which the bass "grinds away"
secret nationalist societies in italy
Russia's desire to unify
romantic landscape painter
"The workers' union to choose and pay a defender who shall represent the working class before the nation... so as to establish universal acceptance of this class' right to exist..." (1840s)
avoidance of a primary key
came up with the idea that governments should stimulate economy.
rebuilding France for Louis-Napoleon's benefit
Third Class Carriage
it's a third-class family... on a carriage Daumier 1862
a Delacroix painting of a relaxed virtuoso (1820s)
Concert of Europe
alliance of European powers
Peace Conference
president wilson's conference to create peace after world war 1
interwar years
1919-1939 (WW1-WW2)
American photographer interested in capturing harlem
the ruler that takes power after the 1848 revolution and recreates empire
porcy and bess writer/composer
"In condensing to dictionary form all that concerns the arts and sciences, it remained necessary to make people aware of the assistance they lend each other..." (1750)
the first true Realist
the "synthesiser" who came up with the law of universal gravitation
connected Darwin's ideas to society and economy
a prussian who took some drastic measures to unify germany
American Scene
seperate american artists working on art for a national identity
history painting
a large-scale painting that depicts a historical event and has a universal moral message
"The way in which the vast mass of the poor are treated by modern society is truly scandalous. They are herded into great cities where they can breathe a fouler air than in the countryside which they have left" etc. (1840)
the reasoning self
an early step towards democracy, allowing people some say in govt.
"They would not again accept the view that a government must interfere as little as possible in the operation of the economic system."
drew based on popular comics
Juddddddddddddd, a minimalist
political advertising
the art of using the orchestra
advocate of extreme racial nationalism
Leopold II
a Belgian king who got the idea to establish colonies in Africa
"The Fascist accepts life and loves it, ... concieves of life as duty and struggle and conquest..." (1930s)
"Cupid Held A-Captive" painter
program music
music with a story, instrumental word painting
a controversial Realist
the joke with which Beethover replaced the minuet
the astronomer who proved Copernicus's idea
coup d'etat
military overthrow of government

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