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Journalism Midterm


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Prior restraint
Henry VIII on Christmas Day 2534 required printers to have royal permission before setting up shop
Star Chamber
i. Symbol of repression
ii. Barrier to free expression
iii. Edicts of it in 1586 had severe penalties for printers who defied authorities
iv. Abolished in 1641 by Long Parliament
Benjamin Harris
i. Last victim under King Charles for violating the king’s laws
ii. Spent two years in prison
iii. Office was raided in 1686 and went to America
iv. Publishers of one of the first papers in America
vii. wrote a spelling book that was a best seller
viii. then, promotor of literary works
Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick
i. published by Harris after fall of Andros
ii. 9/25/1690: 4-pages with blank 4th side (6x10.25)
iii. first American newspaper (banned after first issue)
iv. got into trouble because he printed the truth as he saw it and violated licensing restrictions imposed in 1662
v. licensing ended it and he bcame seller of quack medicines

- rambling, editorial style with religious references and no quotes
- no ads and blah design
- no references to people's names
James Franklin, Ben Franklin, The New England Courant, Pennsylvania Gazette
- started in 1721
- J. was former printer of Gazette
- lasteed 5 years
- first N. American paper to supply readers with what they liked and needed, rather than info controlled by self-interested officials
- J. was first to use crusde type of journalism
- introduced public to Addison and Steele essays
- B's Silence Dogood essays
- J.'s most important contribution was unshackling American press from licenser (not by authority)
- 1722: charged for contempt and forbidden to print or publish
- B. became official publisher
- J. later founded RI Gazette (1st paper in colony)
- B. went to Philly
- took over Gazette in 10/1729 from Samuel Keimer (founder)
- wrote "Busy-Body Papers" against Keimer
- at 24, was sole proprietor of best newspaper in US colonies (largest circulation, most pages, highest advertising revenue, most literate columns)
- printer, engraver, and type founder and also advertising world recognition
- Poor Richard's Almanack (1732)
- failed at establishing mag in 1741 and helped establish first foreign-lang paper at Germantown
- became deputy postmaster general
- greatest contribution to US journalism was that he made it respectable
John Peter Zenger, his trial
- 1734-5
- William Bradford printed NY Gazette (1st paper in colony) on 11-8-1725
- favored the administration
- JPZ was his apprentice
- Sir William Cosby was to be new governor
- Rip Van Dam was acting governor (Cosby wanted 1/2 fees collected)
- Chief Justice Lewis Morris sided with Van Dam and was removed
- new chief justice James Delancey
- Zenger started Ny Weekly Journal (11-5-1733)
- charged with "Scandalous, Virulent, and Seditious REflections upon the Government"
- 11/17/1734: Zenger arrested for "raising sedition"
- 8-4-1735: trial began
-Anna (JPZ's wife) rand the shop and James Alexander was editor
- Richrd Bradley was attorney general
- Andrew hamilton was lawyer and said though print, not guilty unless words are libelous (false, malicious, and seditious)
- freedom to express justifable truth
- "Falsehood makes the Scandal and both the libel"
- judge said can't give the truth of a libel in evidence
James Rivington
- voice of the Tories (retain the basic structure of colonial society)
- came to colonies in 1762
- family was official publishers of religious books for the Church of England
- proprietor of 1st chain of bookstores in US (Boston, Ny, Philly)
- 1773, Rivington's New York Gazetter or the Connecticut, Hudson's River, NJ and Quebec Weekly Advertiser
- try give fair and accurate reports
- Later, paper became Royal Gazette (after Lexington and Concord)
- went back to Eng in 1776 and was king's printer in 1777
- died in NY in 1802
John Dickinson
- Whig philosopher (Penman of the Revolution" of Penn.
- "Letter from a Farmer in Penn." (Pennsylania Chronicle in 1767)
- empahsis on property
- wrote Declaration of Rights of the Stamp Act Congres and two Petitions to the King and co-aouthor of Articles of Confed
-"no taxation without representation" (econ aspect of struggle)
- influential because respected by propertied class
Samuel Adams
- only ones eriously interested in social change
- five main objectives:
(1) justify course they advocated
(2) advertise advantages of victory
(3) arouse the masses ("shock troops" by instilling hatred of enemies
(4) neutralize any logical and reaasonable arguments proposed by the opposition
(5) phrase all issues in black and white so purposes might be clear even to common laborer
- propagandist of the Revolution
- "Master of the Puppets"
- Caucus Club--> had Independent ADvertiser (1748: became editor of publication at 26)
- regular contributor to the Boston Gazette and Country Journal
- Committees of Correspondence
Isaiah Thomas
- Patriot editor
- first president of Antiquarian Society
- historian of colonial press
- owner of one of the finest private libraries
- learned to spell by setting type
- Zechariah Fowle was his master
- founded massachusetts Spy together in 1770
- eyewitness to first battle of War of Independence
- sent presss to Worcester
- first American to publish Blackstone's Commentaries, Greek grammar, printed music, and novel by native author William Hill Brown's Power of Sympathy
- printed first American dictionary y William Perry
- published first American versions of mother Goose and Little Goddy Two-Shoes
-wrote History of Rpinting in America (1810)
founded American Antiquarian Society
Tom Paine
- met Ben Franklin in Europe
- went to Philadelpihia
- first conributions were to Robert Aitken's Penn MAg
- Common Sense (1776) and sold more than 120k copies in 1st 3 months
- Cisis papers--> look on next card
Crisis Papers
- Paine saw defeated Americans in Fort Lee preparing to withdraw to Delaware River line
- biblical resonance and rhythm
- dedication to a cause
-written 12-19-1776
- printed first in John Dunlap's Penn PAcket on 12-27
-won in Trenton afterwards
-caught significance of US Rev
-later wrote Rights of AMn and Age of Reason
Sarah and Mary Katherine Goddard
- mother and sister of printer William Goddard
- lived in Providence
- 1762, together founded print shop and Providence Gazette
- offered Providence a print shop, bookstore and post office and were Whig
- carried Farmer letters
- helped with Penn Chronicle in Philly (late 1768)
- Mary katherine also directed Maryland Journal
- later ran bookstore ntil 1802
- Isiah thomas said she was an expert and correct compositor
Bill of Rights, First Amendment
- first 10 amendments
- price paid by Anti-feds for constitution
- protect p=minority rights
- first amendment: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of relgion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the pres; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to pettion the Governemnt for a redress of grievances."
- corenerstone of press liberty
- states already granted full protection for rpess
- clause became first amendment in 1791
Federalist Series
- Jay, Madison, Hamilton
- published in NY Indpendent Journal from 10/1787 to 4-1788
- 85 articles
- Hamilton was Publiu
- wanted republican form of government, offering protection to the masses, without direct control by them, as under a truly democratic system
Sedition Act of 1798 and prosecutions under it
- passed summer of 1798
- aimed at troublesome foreigners lving in the ocuntry and muzzling irritating editors
- laws stand for two years
- control journalistic spokespeople of the Anti-Federalists
- however, law didn't forbid criticism of the government (just curb malicious and flase statements published to defame officials)
- safeguards: truth could be offered as defense and jury could determine both the law and the fact
- Matthew Lyon of Vermont: "Green Mt Boys": had Roger Griswold make instulting remarks on his war record and spat in his eye--> crime charged was publication of a letter ot an editor accusing Presdient Adams of ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and selfish avarice
- editor Anthony Haswell printed ad in Vermont Gazette announcing lottery to raise moeny to pay for Lyon's fine and was arrested
- 14 indictments under the Act (11 trials and 10 convctions)
- test of tyranny is not necessarilty the number of prosecutions but the number of mena nd women restrained from speaking rreely because of fear
Alexander Hamilton
- leader of the federalists
- want resuced from democracy
- let those with special intersts control it since had most to lose
- liked military efficieny
- founded NY Evening Post in 1801 (city's oldest newspaper) (William Coleman was first editor)
Elias Boudinot, Cherokee Phoenix
- first Native American Newspaper in 1828
-founded in Georgia
-four pages:L part in English and part in Cherokee
-used 86 character alphabet devised by Sequoyah
- was a Cherokee shoolteacher, published Cherokee laws, spelling lessons, news, own observations
- resigned as editor in 1832 and paper gone in 1834
Niles’ Weekly Register
- edited by Hezekaih Niles
- published in Baltimore and read in every state
- early 19th century equivalent of modern news magazine
- started in 1911 and had minimum of opinion
- weekly roundup of speeches, important documents, and statements of leaders everywhere on current problems
- objective journalism so both sides of controversy were in Reigster and material was indezed for ready reference
- reprinted for authoritative chronicales of first half of 19th century to 1849
Benjamin Day, New York Sun
- started 9/3/1833
- apprenticed at Springfield Republican (MAss.) in 1831
- wanted to start penny paper sold and fnanced on per-issue basis
- ropsed this with Arunah S. Abell and Wiliam M. Swain but they didn't agree
- 4 pages and 2/3s side of modern tabloid page
- front page was 3 columns wide and no display devices
- emphasis on local happenings and violent news
- reporting of George Wisner made it sucessful
- human-interest news was important
- got lots f advertising revenue (whole back page) and want ads (lassified notices)
- Robert Hoe & Son installed new cylinder press for Sun that was fastest in city by 1500 papers an hour
Penny press
- appearance of penny pressand rise of common people in Jacksonian democracy were integrated
- democratic market society: growth of mass democracy, marketplace ideology, urban society
- public more interested in news than in views
- penny papers lowered standards--? sacrifice truth for more customers (moon hoax)
- advertiser more interested in paper
- Volney B. Palmer: first advertising agency man who opened shop in 1849 as liaison between papers and businesspeople
- got better presses
- changed distribution methods: not subcription but on street (London Plan)--> streer vendors
- used better makeup and more readable type to lure readers
James Gordon Bennett, New York Herald
- was a reporter and editor
- engineered merger of Courier and Enquirer in 1829 for Col. james Watson Webb
- produced paper on 5/6/1835
- built it in cellar of basement on box desk
- used sensational material like Sun but was best at criminal reporting
- had extra feautre in news voerage
- branched out to other fields of journalism: business, foreign, national, local, letters column for readers, society news, critical review column, sports news
- later bcame 2 cents
- called amoral later and toned down paper
- added spice, enterprise and aggressiv enews coverage
- remembered for not what it said as for how it said it
- opposed abolitionist movement and for Kansas-Nebraska Act (vindicated South's rights) and was most popular American paper in UK
- after first battle of Bull run, Bennett gave full support ot Lincoln administration and war
- Herald paper had probs with government
- then, most popular newspaper in US
Horace Greeley, New York Tribune
- one of the most influential editors in US journalism
- Whig but also fair and try help common people
- felt henry Clay was hero
- want opporutnity, work, and edu available to all
- "first and oly great vehicle this coutnry has known for the ideas and experiements of constructive democracy"
- 1834, founded the New yorker
- edited and published campaign paper, Log Cabin in 1840
- 4/10/1841: NY Tribune, daily penny paper
- NY Whig triumvirate: Greely, Thurlow Weed, Governor William H. Seward
- four pages
- trailed Sun and Herald in daily circuatlation but weekly edition was sucess (next ot the Bible)
- wanted to learn by experimentation (let Albert Brisbane: Fourierism: use columns--> collective liging (associationism))
- Charles A. Dana and George Ripley (Brook FArm) became staff members
- Karl Marx was London correspondent
- Henry J. Raymond also stared out under Greeley
- MArgaret Fuller also wrote regularly
- Carl Schurz, John Hay, Whitelaw REid, Henry James, Willaim Dean howells, George Ripley and Richard hildreth all served under him
- opposed slavery
- helped Lincoln get to White house in 1860
- "Paryer of 20 Millions" on 8/20/1862 called for action on slavery issue
- prompted Empancipation Proclamation
- founded in 1841
Henry Raymond, New York Times
- Rayomond contributed to New Yorker and worked at Tribune but not get along with Greeley
- worked for Col. James Watson Webb on Courier and Enquirer
- became orator and politician as State Assembly in 1849 and speaker in 1851
- editor of Harer's New Monthly Magazine
- 9/18/1851, published NY Daily Times with George Jones as penny paper
- no sensationalism like Sun and Hearld and no whimsy of Tribune
- interpreted foreign news
- contribution was development of reasonable decency in public reporting (min. personal invective)
- was mouthpiece of Free Soil Whig group but then later wen with Republican party
- defender of the president
- had objective reportoing during War but also gave strong support on important issue
Anne Royall
- Washington's first important woman journalist
- at 61, in 1831, founded 4 page paper, Paul Pry
- 1836-1854: printed The Huntress (stood for Jacksonian principles, free public edu, free speech, justice for immigarants and NAtive Americans)
Jane Grey Swisshelm
- first woman sit in congressional press gallery
- editor of antislavery Saturday Visitor in Pissburgh
- sent columns to Greeley's Tribue for $5 a week
- 4/17/1850: sat in Senate press gallery but not return
- crusade and feminist
- editor in Minnesota in 1857
- made St. Cloud Democrat voice for Repblican Party, opponent of slavery, advocate of women's rights
Margaret Fuller
- NY tribune staff member in Wash from 1844-1846
- editor of The Dial sponsered by REmrerson
- wrote literary reviews and profiles
- 1846, first US woman foreign correspondent--> UK Fr, ITL
- married an Italian revloutionary
- died in shipwreck of eastern coast
Associated Press
- /5/1848: publishers of leading NY papers met in Sun offices and reached agreement
- procure foreign news by telegraph from Boston in common
- contract of Assoicate Press
- Herald, Courier and Enquirer, Sun, Express, Journal of Commerce
- modern AP was 1/11/1849
- Harbor News Association found in 1967 by Schwarzlose in Henry J. Raymond papers in NY PUblic Library (6 partners operate 2 boats to gather news from incoming ships in NY harbor, share costs, sell news to papers outside NYC, set up membership news.
- 1851: wrote Telegraphic and General ENws Association
- Dr. Alex Jones was superintendent of servide and later suceeded by Daniel Craig in 1851
Samuel Clemens/Mark Twain
- published stuff in San Fran's first daily Alta California (1850)
- Nevada's Territorial Enterprise (858) was city editor in early 1860s
- wrote Life on the Miss (1883) and Huckleberry Finn (1885)
- contributor ot San Fran's The Golden Era (leading lit magazine)
-was an anti-imperialist: new US flag designed with white stripes painted black and stars replaced by skull and cross bones (during manifest desitny period)
William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator
- 1/1/1831: issued first copy of Liberator in Boston
- voice of abolisttionist
- peopl resent his self-righteousness
- cased most violent public reaction since Ton Paine
- MAss ready rforbid export of nespaper and pretty much no distribution allowed
Elijah Lovejoy
- abolitionist who died for the cause
- editor of St. Louis Observer (weekly founded in 1835)
- moved press to Alton,IL
- killed by mob because citizens wanted paper gone
Frederick Douglass
- Narrative of the Lfe of Frederick Doublass
- editor of The Ram's Horn (started in 1/1847 by Willis A. Hodges)
- North STar: 11/1/1847: also by Douglass
- articles on slavery and blacks and cross-section of national and world news
- later renaimed Frederick Douglass Paper in 1851
- Douglass' Monthly (abolitionist mag aimed at Birt audience help N war cause)
- 1970, contriributing editor of New Era, Wash weekly--> became New National Era under him
- My Bondage and My Freedom (1855)
- Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1978_
Matthew Brady, Alexander Gardner, Timothy H. O’Sullivan
- Brady was best war photograper: couldn't be used in papers b/c no method transfer light and shade in printing process but artist did
- everywhere during the war
- worked for AT Stewart (NY dept. store owner)
- took him to Samueul Morse and went to Prof Draper at NYU (made first instatnanteous photographic exposuerein US)
- met Daguerre (daguerreotype): photo on metal
- leanerrned wet plate method from Scott Archer
- Gardner was ScottArcher's associate
- O'Sullivan was another cameraman
-together, got 3500 phts that are in Nat'l Archives and Library of Congress
Summary lead
- put main feature of the story in the first paragraph
- developed during civil war by reporters in the field who feared that their complete dispatches might not get through
Thomas Nast
- political caroonist who used against Tweed in Harper's Weekly (edited by George Wiliam Curits) during 1871
E. W. Scripps
- MidW papers of 1870s-80s
- Edward Wyllis Scripps
- James E. Scripps founded Detroid Evening NEws in 1873
- had papers in Cleveland, Cincinnati, St. louis, and Buffalo
- new journalism: low-priced evenign publicationsl small in size but well writeen and tighetly edited; hard-hitting in both news and editorial-age coverage of the local scene and for working people
- four penny evening papers: Buffalo Evening Telegraph, St. Louis Chronical, Cleveland Press and cincinnati Post (last two were EW's biggies)
- championed poor and ill-inofrmed in his Profressive newspaper
- set sight on working people in smaller but growing industrial cities of the country
- conception of his responsibility to the working people
- 1889: EW and Miton McRae formed League of Newspapers--> looked for industrial city with stodgy newspaper opposition and start paper and if succeeed, then get stock; if fail, new people and after 10 years, abandoned if failure
-1911: started Day bok in Chicago (tabloid) with Carl Sandburg as chief reporter and was adless
- later, Roy Howard woudl dominate his papers
Joseph Pulitzer
- leading American editor of modern times
- fortune of nearly $20 mill (most ever)
- achieved leadership by being receptive to others' ideas
- high-minded conception of naewspper's role (editorial leadership and make conception life in paper)
- 1867, US citizen (fought in Civil War)
- 1868, reporter for Carl Schurz's German daily Westliche Post
- Missouri State Assemlby (Republican)
- became part-owner of Post
- bought mediocre St. Louis daily that had AP membership
- campagined for Samue J. Tilden (1876 Dem) and reported for DAna's NY Sun
- bought ST. Louis Dispatch from sheriff's sale (got AP membership) and combined with Post
- became leadiong evening paper in St. Louis
- John A. Cockerill was his managing editor
- "NEver drop a thing until you have gone to the bottom of it... Continuity until the subject is really finished."
- had bad eyesight and nerve problems
- bought the NY World (2 cent paper)
- supported Grover Cleveland in 1884
- how he became successful:
(1) recognized characteristics of potential audience
(2) used human interest and sensational stories to win large circulation and then captured them with editorial columns and news stories
- arranged first separate sports dept. for paper
- people's champions after Sp-Am war (anti-imperialist)
- bought World in 1883
New York World
- founded in 1860 as morning Dem paper (edited by Manton Marble and sold by Jay Gould)
- first edition out 5/1//1883
- sensational stories (storm cause million dollar damage in NJ) and aggressive promotion of paper (the ears--> pluged paper's circultion and exclusives)
- concise 10-point program on editorial page
- liberal political and social stands
- Cockerill also became managing editer (women's and sports news)
- 1887, 250k circulation, largest in US
- 2 cent paper
- paper had also stunts like Nellie Bl
- established a Sunday and Evening World (1887)
- part of new journalism
- people's champions b/c against imperialism (for WJ Bryant in 1900)
- independent of party paper
- editorial page staff (Fank I. Cobb)
- 1905: Equitable Life Assurance Society (David Reguson and Louis SEibold report) use funds for private investments--> most famous crusade
- Panama Canal scandal in 1908 and almost libel suit by T. Roos. but then dropped
- supported Woodrow
- 1923, Cobb died
- 1931, paper would be gone
- no longer complete coverage of the news and tabloids went down
- bought by Roy w. Howard and merged with the Telegram
Elizabeth Cochrane/Nellie Bly
- went around world in 72 days in 1889 for the World
- moral crusader also
Ida Tarbell
- one of the original muckrakers for McClures in 1893
- speacialty was biographies and research work
- 1902, exposed business practices of Rockefeller and Std Oil Co. ("History of the Standard Oil Co."
- eventually went to American Magazine with John S. Phillips in 1906
Winifred Black/Annie Laurie
- active woman writer, one of Hearst's early stars
Jacob Riis
- reporter for NY Sun
- wrote about misery and vice of NY slums
- How the Other Half Lives (1890)
- pioneer in documentary photography with photos of slums ("Flashes from the Slums"
William Randolph Hearst
- 64 year publishing career
- Californian who's dad George bought San Fran Examiner in 1880
- worked as a cub reporter for NY World
- 1887, editor of Examiner
- Sam S. Chamberlain was his managing editor
- called his paper "The Monarch of the Dailies"
-bought NY Journal (Pulitzer's brother's paper in 1882)
- bought out Pulitzer's staff
- moved out his San Fran staffers
- Pulitzer also cut price to a penny
- installed large color presses at the Journal, added 8 page colored comic section AMerican humorist) and replaced taht with 16page The Sunday AmericanMAg (American Weekly)
- sent Frederic Remington to Havana and said you furnish the pictures, and I'll furnish the war
- Hearst continually used yellow journalism and sensationalism
- very liberal man-- bordering on socialist (nationalization of indeustries and labor unions)
- wanted to be President in 1904
- added many papers to company
“Yellow journalism”
- sensational journalism practiced
- Hearst was big timer
- Outcault's "Yellow Kid"
Richard Harding Davis
- great reproter at NewYork Sun but later left for hearst but achieved greatest fame with Herald
- sent by Hearst to Cuba
- covered Russ-Jap War and frustrated by Jap censorship
- covered Boer wAr for NY Hearld
- also covered entry of German army into Brussels (WWI) for NY Tribune
Jimmy Hare(p. 205)
- photographer of Russo-Japanese War in 1904 who was frustrated by Jap censorship
- can't get pics until take risks
- one of the first to use hand-held camera
- worked for Collier's
- Spanish Aerican and Russo-Jap war
- took 1st pic of flight (Orville Wright)
- also covered Mxn Rev and WWI
- honorary president of Overseas Press Club
William Allen White
- small-town Kansas editor
- born 1868-1944
- sokesman for small towns
- editor of Emporia Gazete
- was editorial writer for William Rockhill Nelsoon's Kansas City Star
- bought EMporia Gazette in 1895 for $3000
- "What's te matter with Kansas" (8/15/1896) made him nat'lly famous for representing conservatism in its full and perfect flower--> Kansas was declining in pop and economic standing and said because of fanatics of reform movement and was for Republicans
- friend of T. Roos.
- became a muckraker for S.S. McClure
- Gazete demanded reforms
- White was later Progresive party member with T. Roos.
- supported League of nations and was leader in Comitte to Defend America by Aiding the Allies in WWII
- also, from class, ran for governor agaisnt Ku Klux Klan
Lincoln Steffens
- former reproter for the Evening Post and city editor of the Commercial advertiser in NY--> one of nation's most famous crusading liberals at McClure's
- attacked corruption in city and state governments
- "The Shame of the Cities": recounted situation in St. Louis
- later went to American MAgazine in 1906 with john S. Phllips
George Creel’s Committee on Public Information
-committee disseminated facts about Wwi and coordinate govn't propaganda efforts and to serve as the government's liaison with newspapers
- had voluntary censoship code where editors would agree to refrain from printing material that might adi the enemy
- opened government news channels to Wash correspondents and insited that only news of troop movements, ship sailings, and other events of striclymlitary character should be withheld
- 5/1917: published Official Bulletin
- asked major advertisers and publcations to donate space for various government campaigns, Red Cross,a dn other war-related activities
- CPI's division of pictorial publicity contributed posters
- propaganda efforts during the war--> division between betwen patriotism and intolerance proved impossible to maintain
The Masses, Victor Berger’s Milwaukee Leader, censorship of German and Socialist papers and the Espionage Act of June 15, 1957
- fell heavily on Socialist and Germ papers or pacifist anti-Allies
- The MAsses: mag edited by Max Eastman felt ban in 8/1917 for publishing issue with 4 antiwar cartoons and poem defending radical leaders Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman
- 44 papers lost mailing privileges during 1st year of Act
- Milwaukee LEader could print again if nothing on war--> first Socialist elected to Congress bu tnot allowed in
- Germ lang press also hit by mail bans and prosecutions
Floyd Gibbons
- International News Service foreign correspondent
- hit by German machine-gun fire and lost eye in WWI as Chi Trib reporter
- dail news roadcast to reach growing national audience in 1930s befoer NBC's Amos 'n' Andy show
- credited with first remote broadcast (shortwave transmitter when german dirigible Graf Zeppelin landed at Lakehurst, NJ in 1929)
- Hello, Everybody! (folksy man)
= Chicago Tribune correspondent
- went on Laconia boat ("Vat Ship is That?")
- 1929, nBC hired him to do Headline Hunters
- 203 words/min
- hot bulletins
- 1930, Literary Digest hired him
“Clear and Present Danger” theory (Schenck v. U.S., Near v. Minnesota)
- Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes did this
- involved Phl Socialist party who printed and distirbuted antiwar leaflets urging youing draft inductees to join Socialist party and work for repeal of draft law and dencouned war as ruthless adventure servind Wall Stree interest
- found was clear and present danger in this case (wil bring about the substantive evils that congress has aright to prevent)
Reginald Fessenden
- first to use continous waves instead of series of bursts by Marconi to carry voice or music
- 1902 patent was first in US for radio-telegraph system using Hertzian waves
- 12/24/1906: first broadcast made (read St. Lukes Gospel, layed Handel's Largo and wished them erry Christmas)
Lee De Forest
- The Fther of Radio
- invented forerunner to the vacuum tube and able to transmit voice in lab room (Audion)
- 1907, experiments made him world celebrity
- broadcast concerts and next year, broadcast music from top of Eiffel tower
0 1910, boradcast voice of Enrico Caruso from Met opera house to scattered audience in NYC
- began daily music broadcasts in 1916
- broadcast election returns on 11/7/1916 incorrectly by saying Charles Evans Hughes won when Woodrow did
Charles David “Doc” Herrold
- opened boradcasting school in 1909 and build antenna on roof of Garden City Bnak Builiding
- began regularly scheduled, weekly half-hour news and music program--> daily in 1910
- his wife Sybil may ahve been first woman to braodcast her own show (muscial program for young ppl)
- first broadcaster eause aimed programs at widest possible audience and offereed first regular programming
- hist station was KQW in 1921 and was KCBS in San Fran in 1949
- two-way voice communicaion system set up with another radio station on roodf of Fairmont hotel in San Fran in 1912
David Sarnoff, RCA (pp. 272-274)
- 3 companies come together in 1919 to form Radio Corporation of America (AT&T, Westinghouse, and GE)
- companies bought up Brit-owned Marconi patents on radio equipment
- at first, RCA was in wireless message service
- Sarnoff wanted to break hodl AT&T had on big-time radio (ex: World SEries baseball reporting)
- WJZ was owned by RCA and later had WEAF in 1926
- RCA, GE, and Westinghouse incorporated NBC in 1926 with Merlin H. Aylesworth as president
William Paley, CBS
- 1927, was NBC's first competition
- United independent Broadcasters and Columbia Phonograph Record Company became Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting System
--> Columbia Bradcasting Syste
- first network show on 9/18/1927 of music and advertising
- Paley bought control of United and became CBS
- family was in cigar business
- dominated CBS for 50 years
Federal Communications Commission
- forced NBC to sell Blue network (WJZ)--> ABC
- 2/1927, federal regultion of braodcast channels
- Radio act of 1927: established 5-member FRC: regulate all forms of radio communications
- cmmunications Act of 1934: 7-member FCC: regualte radio braodcasting and jurisdiction over al telecommunications
- no censorship--> either on or off
- 7/1/1941: gave approval for 18 TV stations to begin commercial operation
“Jazz Journalism”
- 1920s: rapid rise in emphasis on the techniques of interpretive reproting in al formats
- taboid format was introduced successfully in NY after 1919
- ex: Dily Graphic and Continent
- first widely circulated tabloid was Daily mirror in London in 1903 by Harmsworth
Captain Joseph Medill Patterson, New York Daily News
- partner of ChiTrib since 1914
- unconventional and protested social inusticie and economic oppression and socialistic
- Illustrated Daily News: 6/26/1919 and was gimicky
- sensationalism, entertainment emphasis, and reliane on photography
- had 250k circulation in 1924 (largest in nation)
=- emphasized news and photo enterprise
- became supproter of New Deal but was isolationist
William Randolph Hearst revisited
- positive contriutions to news:
(1) world's largest publishing empire
(2) methods and innovations in news writing and handling and utilization of newmechanical process were very important (appeal to mass of readers and increased reading habits)
(3) contructive force: believed in progressive solutions but American
(1) finances weren't htat great later on but Hearst lived in regal stle
(2) Hearst only used sensationalism but no high-quality editorlial page and no powerful influence in American life (none of Pres. candidates won)
3) advocate of Americanism but also had jinoism and fostered Red hunts and labeled people as communists
- helped elect FDR but then later not so really changed beliefs
Col. Robert McCormick, Chicago Tribune
- partner of ChiTrib in 1914
- grandons of Joseph Medill
- had combine of Chi Tri-NY Daily News
- ultraconservative and trid to prove taht Trib ws right and most everybody else was wrong
- proclaimed his paper was "World's Greatest NEwspaper"
- head of Daily News in 1946
- started aper in 1847 (Trib) by Medill
- R.R. Mc were his memos that were law
- opposed FDR and domestic policies of the NEw Deal
- extreme conservatism and nationalism
- was cairman of American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) committe on freedom of the pres went up against Near V. Minnesota case
Near v. Minnesota
- 1931: defneded 1st and 14th amendment ights of the press
- apply freedom of press guarantees of st Amendment agsint states through due-process clause of 14th amendment against "gag law" of 1935 (Minn.) which permitted suppression of malicious andscandalous publications and was applied to Saturday Press (Minneapolis)
- Cheif Justic Charles Evans Hughes said in 5-4 decision taht the law was unconstitution b/c it permitted prior restraint on publicatio
Interpretive reporting
- most important development of 1930s and 40s
- proper bging of news events and covering of major areas f human activity by specialists
- why beame importnt along with who did what: coverage of all improved by reporter-specialists
- sticking to a factual account of what had been said or done
- tried to increase direct coverge of organized labor's ativities and attitubes
- scince and biz also better covered and not sensationialized
Anne O’Hare McCormick
- won Pulitzer for European reporting during the 1930s as part of NY Times News Service
- won for 1921 story that analyzed an unknown Benito Mussolini and predicted he would master italy
- 1937 made Times' columnist on international affairs and a member of its editorial board
Walter Lippmann
- editor of New York World after Cobb in 1920s
- staff member of the new Republic and supported Wilson in wartime and was contributor to The Masses (Max Eastman) though it did not support Wilson
- published documented study " A Test forthe New as supplement to 8/4/1920 issue of the New Republic, illustrating the inaccuracy with which Associated Press and NY Times had reproted Russian events from 1917-1920 while NY World editorial-page staff
- book. Public Opinion, gave direction to the development of the fields of public opiniona nd public relations in 1922 (likened each individual's opnions to the pictures in our heads and said those were actued upon by groups of people and examined how opinions are crystallied into a social purpose or national will)
- Herald Tribune columnist when editorship of World ended in 1931-> joined polticial column trio (lippmann more on internationl field)
Drew Pearson
- gossipcolmnist at the Baltimore Sun
- left newspapers to coauthor a behind-the-scenes column in 1932
Lowell Thomas
- took over Gibbons job at CBS
- claim to fame was exclusive story of Arabian campaign in WWI (With Laurence in Arabia)
- made first broadcast 9/29/1930--> longest runing in boradcast history (lasted unti 5/14/1976)
- first show had comments about Hitler
- "Good Evening, Everybody."
Hans Von Kaltenborn
- dean of comentators, who quit newspaper and joined CBS as full-time commenttor in 1930
- foreign correspondent, manging editor and associate editor of Brooklyn Eagle in first journalistic assignments and started broadasting news for a locl station in 1922
- 1923, news commentary on WVp (Army Signal Corps) and regular half hour news report on WEAF
- spoke in 200 words/min
- official start of WWII in 1939 started by him braodcast from haystack near Frecnch fborder with Spain
- in Studio Nine in NYC, spendt 3 weeks backstopping CBS Euro correspondents who conducted the leaborate hookup system known as the European ENws Roundoup
- translated Hitler's fiery oratory for American listeners and predicted diplomatic steps from events
- founded Assoication of NEws Analysts in 1941
Edward R. Murrow
- detested Htitler, sympathy with UK, feared for JEwish
- unknwon CBS program arranger who was named Euro news chief was in London at first
- did cultural and human interest stories
- 3/12/1938: had first multiple news pickup in history in Vienna with William L. Shirer in London
“Fireside Chats”
- FDR made 28 of them during Great Depression and WWII
- friendly manner
- used to achieve national unity
Margaret Bourke-White
- World War II and the Korean War photographer
- did photographic essays and interpretive picture stories at the close of Great Depression, captured Gandhi's compelling personality in india, took wartime assignments
- did ift for Life mag
Ida B. Wells
- first prominent black woman journalist and editor
- feminist reformer and reace leder
- co-owner and editor of Free Speech in Memphis and was mbed in 1892
- worked for NY Age and weekly Conservator in chicago
-anti-lynching crusader from the South who came to reside in Chicago and write for the weekly Conservator here.
Dorothy Thompson
- the first U.S. woman to head a news bureau in Europe
- NY Post, covered Vienna, Berlin, Moscow, Budapeset, and London and was expelled from Germany by Hitler in 1934
- European correspondent for the Phil Public LEdger and the NY Psot during the 1920-30s
- married to Sinclair Lewis and wrote a column on international affairs for NY Herald Tribune unitil she wsdropped for endorsing FDR for 3rd term in order to meet threat of hitler's regime
- Berlin bureau chief for the Phil Public Ledger as wel as contributor o other newspapers and mags while living in Euro b/t the wars, began devliering commentaries for NBC in 1937
- staund internationalist and widely admiered for her interviews w/political leaders for her role in the women's movement
Marguerite Higgins
- Pulitzer Prize-winning correspondent
- wrote for NY Herald Tribune on Korean War
- got an exlusive interview with Gen MacArthur
- at the fall of Suwon airfield
- saw first US soldier fall in action 7/5/1950
- also went to the Vietnam War
- hawk who advocated the use of the atomoic bomb if needed to repel the Communists wherever thye were
- fell victim ro Asiastic infection on a 1965 trip and died a lingering death in 1966
Agnes Underwood
- The Los Angeles Herald & Express was the first major metropolitan paper to hire a woman city editor and that wasn’t until 1947
Lois Wille
- The Post World War II Pioneers
- Pulitzer Prize-winning , Medill BSJ 53 and MSJ 54.
- 1956, about the time Lois Wille was hired by the Chicago Daily News as assistant to the fashion writer after being turned down by City News Bureau, which refused to hire women.
- editor of the Daily Nothestern
- won Pulizter in 1989 for refusal of contraceptive t indigent women
Katherine Fanning
- first woman president of ASNE (American Society of Newspaper Editors), of the Christian Science Monitor
- was not elected until 1987-88; only three other women have been elected ASNE president since then.
Chicago journalism
classroom discussions
- rail and trade center of inland America and passed million mark in 1890 to become nation's second city
- Haymarket Square riot in Chicago
- Melvile E. Stone and Victor LAwson made new journalism in Chicago
- herman Kohlsaat was chief figure in Chicago's newspaper consolidations (bought into Inter Ocean in 1891 and later sold out and bought Evening Post and Times-Herald
- 1902, Chi had 4 morning papers (Tribune, Inter Ocean, Record-Hearald, Examiner) and evening (Daily NEws, Post, journal, American)
- sharp reduction in number of morning dailies
Joseph Medill, Chicago Tribune
- ended editorship with death in 1899
- nationalistic in foreign policy and generally conservative in its outlok
- fought liberal Illinois governor Altgeld and attacked Eugen Debs-led Chicago labor unions and crasuaded against utility and street-railway franchise grabs
- used McCutcheon's front-page cartoons in 1903
- James Keeley (managing editor) helped develp bigggest exposes in 1910: evidence that William Lorimer won election as Senator by bribing state legislators
- was managing editor and suppor tof Lincoln
- "What is the news" was last words
Robert S. Abbott, Chicago Defender
- founded in 1905
- 1915, circulation of 230k
- largest American black newspaper group
- challenges to KKK, racia rioting, lynchins, etc.
- 1930s, moderated tone and added more personal, social, cultural, and fashion news
- died 1940 and nephew john H. Sengstacke was successor
Day Book
- EW Scripps tried this in 1911 (adless tabloid)- negley D. Cochran was the editor and Carl Sandburg was chief reporter
- reached ciruclation of 25k and was within $500/month of breaking even when the rising newsprint costs of the first year fo WWI, 1917, caused its suspension
Carl Sandburg
- chief reporter of teh Day Book
- contributor to The Masses
Melville E. Stone
- Chicago new journalism instigator
-founder of Dail news
- was managing editor of Republican in 1872 and was city editor of inter Ocea
- 1/1876, started Daily News in Chicago (4 pg)
- first responsibility was to print news, second to guide public opinoin, and third to provide entertainment
- liked paper's detection of criminals
- was AP gen manager and got exclusive news echange contracts with Reuters in UK, Havas in France, and Wolff in Germ (cut United Press off from sources of foreign news) and opened AP news channels in Euro countries
- encourage objectivity (sticking to factual account of what had been said or done
Victor Lawson
- also Chicago instigator of new journalism
- took over business managership of DAily News and 2/3 of stock
- Chicago Daily News foreign service grew out of the coverage begun in 1898 by him for daily News and Record-Herald
Chicago News Bureau
- Chicago News Bureau was an early cooperative news agency, founded in the late nineteenth century by the newspapers of Chicago to provide a source of local and breaking news. It was also used as a training ground for news reporters who graduated into the dailies of Chicago and the dailies of cities beyond Chicago. Some of the famous alums of the City News Bureau include novelist Kurt Vonnegut, Seymour Hersh (who broke the My Lai Massacre story during the Vietnam War and today writes powerefully for The New Yorker about U.S. involvement in Iraq), the late Washington Post cartoonist Herblock, playwright Charles MacArthur (author with Ben Hecht of the play “The Front Page”), pop artist Claes Oldenburg, consumer advocate David Horowitz (a Medill alum), Chicago media mogul Fred Eychaner (another Medill alum) and Mike Royko (more about him in a second). City News Bureau broke some major stories---including the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre in 1929. Jimmy Stewart played a City News Bureau reporter who frees an innocent man from prison in the film “Call Northside 777.” City News Bureau closed in 1999. A successor, the New City News Service, later called the City News Service, succeeded the City News Bureau and was operated by the Chicago Tribune until Dec. 1, 2005, when the remaining nineteen employees of the Service were told their jobs were being eliminated.
Studs Terkel
- He is the 93-year-old author of 10 books of oral history, including the Pulitzer Prize-winning “The God War.”
- One of his selections from “Division Street: America” was assigned for you to read and Alex Kotlowitz mentioned him as an important Chicago voice
Mike Royko
- Pulitzer Prize winner Mike Royko (born 1931-died 1997) was reportedly the most widely syndicated columnist at the time of his death, carried by 600 dailies nationwide. He certainly was the most widely read columnist in Chicago. He wrote for 35 years, most of those years churning out five columns a week, first for the Chicago Daily News, then the Sun-Times, and finally the Tribune. He wrote from the perspective of the working class, which is not surprising. For much of his youth, he lived in a flat above his family's tavern on Milwaukee Avenue in Chicago. He also was the author of Boss, a 1971 unauthorized biography of Mayor Richard J. Daley, father of the current mayor of Chicago. The cover depicted Daley as a Roman emperor. Royko never retired. He wrote until he was hospitalized for a brain aneurysm. His memorial service was held on a sunny day in Wrigley Field. A book of his collected writings , One More Time: The Best of Mike Royko, has an introduction and commentaries by Lois Wille, our guest speaker.
W.E.B. Du Bois, The Crisis
- advocate of Marxism and later lived in Ghana
- executive of NAACP and founded and edited its mag The Crisis (news mag on iterms of concern to blacks, editorial opinion, review of opinion and lit, and lit mag)
Ethnic and Black Press
(pp. 227-231
- peack of ethnic newspapers in 1917 (1323 papers)- Germen were most
- largest foreign-lang daily was New Yorker Staats-Zeitung (1845) started by Herman Ridder
- The Jew: first Jewsih publication in uS as monthly in 1823 by Solomon nHenry jackson (NY's first Jewish printer)- Asmonean (1849): first Eng-lang Jewish weekly in NY by Robert lyon
- Kawkab America (Star of America) was first US newspaper printed in Arabic (1892)
- Golden Hills News *first Asian newspaper in US* (San Fran, 1854 by Methodist missionaries recently returned from china)
- Black Press: Freedom Journal of 1827
- Robert L. Vann's Pittsburgh Courier
- John H. Murphy Sr, founder of Afro-American editions
- T. Thomas Fortuen was one of best-knwon black editors as New york Age
- William Monroe Trotter founded Boston Guardian in 1901
- Robert L.Vann's Pittsburgh Courier was founded in 1910 and had largest circulation of all black newspapers
Rev. Samuel E. Cornish and John Brown Russwurm, founders of Freedom’s Journal
- first black published newpspaer in US
- founded in 1827
- Rev. was first editor of Weekly Advocate or Colored American
John H. Johnson
- started Ebony in 1945
- before, published negro Digest
- later published Jet, Tan Confessions, Ebony J., and Black STars
- Ebony had 1.9 million circulation in late 1980s
- 1986, added EM, men's fashion magazine, to his empire
- had Johnson Publishing Company
- Essence was begun in 1970 for women
Abraham Cahan (p. 213, 421)
- editor of Yiddish Socialist paper Vorwarts (jewish Daily forward) that was founded in 1897 in NYC
Alex Kotlowitz
- prof at NU
- wrote There are No Children There
March of Time
- dramatic reenactments of the week's news
- started in 1930s
- began with Fred Smith
- impersonations of famous personalities
- Orson Welles freaked eople out b/c of War of the Worlds
- also had film documentary and TV versions
Harold Ross, the New Yorker
- started in 1925
- former editor of Stars and STrpes
- cartons, fiction, Profiles, Reporter at Large, commentaries on public affairs
- Letter from Paris was a big deal
DeWitt and Lila Acheson Wallace, Reader’s Digest
- began in 1922
- printed condensed versions of articles of current interest and entertainment value that had appeared in other magazines
- pocket-size style, judgemnt of popular tastes, skillful editing made i a national best seller
- had inspirational tone taht wasn't realistic
Luce, Time magazine
- weekly new-magazine and later had Life, picture magazine
- began in 3/1923
- he was editor of Yale Daily NEws
- organize and departmentalize news of the week
- also started Fortune and Sports illustrated
6 roles of ethnic media in US
1. provide more news of home than is available in the mainstream media
2. teach what it means to be an American (assimilation)
3. Create and sustain a community-- build religious, political, educational, b usiness instittuitons
4. provide forum for literary expression5. fight for justice, against discrimination
6. =celebration of contributions, create pride in community
Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur, authors of “The Front Page,” a play about Chicago journalism
- Hecht reporter for the Chicago Daily News
- MacArthur was at City News Bureau of Chicago
E. L. Godkin
- founder of the Nation and sucessor to William Culen Bryant at the NY Evenign Post
- founded in 1865 for high-grade weekly journal of opinion and literary criticism (discuss political and economic questions of the day and try better conditions of blacks)
- forfront of progressive thought
- badgered politicians who were more interested in personal gain than in progressive improvement of government
- famous with 1884 election betwen Blaine and Cleveland at Evenign Post and Nation
- "deadly parallel" column--> matched Blaine's campaign statements and congressional record against personal associations with railroad builders and financiers
- leading editor of early 1880s in NY
Ng Poon Chew
- founder of China Western Daily (1900) the first Chinese daly in San Fran

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