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cult belief final flashcards


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a process by which collectives place false responsibility for a given action or suffering on a typically weakerindividual. Witches have been scapegoated for a variety of ills such as miscarriages and plague. Victor writes how a townin the grip of a satanic panic blamed counterculture students for alleged mutilated animals and satanic symbolismthroughout town. when belief of folklore translates into contemporary society creating such fears that individuals arevictimized or become scapegoats
hypothetical original form of a given folktale. Based on the assumption that complex folktales have a singleorigin in one time and one place, and spread via automigration (person by person)
I googled this. Wikipedia says it is a generic term to cover a particular genre of pocket-sized booklet, popularfrom the 16th-19th century. They were an important medium of entertainment, info,, and history for the dissemination ofpop culture to the common people, especially in rural areas
Bascom's model on narrative genre
A model to classify Myth, Legend, and Folktale by categories of belief, time, place,attitude, and character. Myths are prose narratives, considered to be truthful accounts of what happened in the remote past.Legends are prose narratives, regarded as true by the narrator and his audience, but they are set in a period considered lessremote, when the world was much as it is today. A folktale is considered by the audience to be fictiona
tall tales. Types 1875 to 1999 in the Aarne-Thompson index are tales of lying, commonly called tall tales, lies, orwindies in the United States. Tall tales may not be original with Americans, but they are certainly popular in the US andfully characteristic of American folklore. The success of tall tales does not depend on belief in the details of the story, butrather on a willingness to lie and be lied to while keeping a straight face. The humor of these tales consists of telling anoutrageous falsehood in the sober accents of a truthful story.
"The Wedding of Smailigic' Meho"
serbo-croation heroic song, main point: Meho is unhappy because he has never gottento experience the glory of battle. The American folklorists Milman Parry (1902-1935) and Albert Bates Lord (1912-1991)traveled through Eastern Europe studying the oral epic tradition. According to these two folklorists, Avdo Medjedovicfrom Bijelo Polje, whom Lord named "the singer of tales" in his book of the same title, was one of the greatest oral epicsingers in the world. They recorded him performing this epic of 12,310 verses
Irish rapparees
From roughly the end of the Elizabethan period to the early nineteenth century in Ireland, men firstlabelled "tories," then "rapparees," and later "highwaymen" were responsible for banditry, small-scale resistance, andgeneral harassment of the wealthy English and Anglo-Irish ruling class. As a symbolic figure in Irish folklore and popularliterature, the outlaw embodies folk morality in conflict with the self-interest and inequity of the state. In the aftermath ofBritish colonization, the Irish outlaw is represented as more than a criminal. He provides a hero through whom ordinaryIrishmen and women can vicariously enjoy brief victories, and imagine their collective dignity in the midst of politicaldefeat and its consequences. Legends, ballads and chapbooks portraying the outlaw are the products of hard-pressedpeople representing themselves to themselves, reflecting on their strengths and weaknesses, and contemplating issues ofmorality and justice
Elias Lönnrot
Finnish folklorist that collected rural tales. He wrote Kalevala, a Finnish national epic, where he mergedseveral poetry variants and added characters for consistency. The Kalevala is sometimes brought up as an example ofnational "fakelore" that like Paul Bunyan stories serves to champion a sense of national identity from a common ancestrythat doesn't actually exist in folklore
applied folklore
Folklore used to inform the study of other academic areas. For example, sociology and anthropology apply folklore in this way
Irish outlaws
As a symbolic figure in Irish folklore and popular literature, the outlaw embodies folk morality in conflictwith the self-interest and inequity of the state. In the aftermath of British colonization, the Irish outlaw is represented asmore than a criminal. He provides a hero through whom ordinary Irishmen and women can vicariously enjoy briefvictories, and imagine their collective dignity in the midst of political defeat and its consequences. Legends, ballads andchapbooks portraying the outlaw are the products of hard-pressed people representing themselves to themselves,reflecting on their strengths and weaknesses, and contemplating issues of morality and justice
involves beliefs, practices, and procedures based upon conscious/subconscious assumptions, usually concernedwith the nature of cause and effect. if deliberate human effects cause a result, the superstition is termed "magic";assumptions underlying superstitions are generally couched in sound logic, remarkablely widespread at every level ofsociety; many deal with luck, love, wishing, cures; many arise from faulty reasoning (post hoc, ergo propter hoc); alsosupported by Frazer's theory of sympathetic magic and gesunkenes Kulturgut. popular belief, behavior, practice or sayingconcerning chance, magic or the supernatural that is logically or scientifically untenable. They usually have to do withcause and effect, such that a certain sign or condition causes a certain result. Superstition in which people are the actorsand cause a certain result is magic
Bruno Bettelheim
A child psychologist that argues Folk Fairy Tales alone among children's literature provide children withsubtle moral education. Fairy tales let children know the darker conflicts of life and death are unavoidable, unlike regularchildren's literature. Composition-in-performance is connected to ideas of fluidity and multiform, rendering moot theconcept of "the original". Each performance is 'original' as a unique act of composition
communal origins (theories of)
states that the folk were unsophisticated peasants who composed folklore as a group effort.This is one of four basic theories to explain who the folk are and how their lore originated. See pg. 50 in Brunvan
3d art made from putting together found objects, ex collage
Child ballads
first comprehensive English collection of ballads
Faroe Islands
evidence of living tradition, islands technically part of Denmark, 50,000 people, autonomous folk culturewhere ballads are major part of life
The Kalevala is a book and epic poem compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Finnish and Karelian folklore in thenineteenth century. It is held to be the national epic of Finland and is traditionally thought of as one of the most significantworks of Finnish literature. An epic itself is often defined as "A lengthy narrative poem in which action, characters, andlanguage are on a heroic level and style is exalted and even majestic." Jean Sibellius composed multiple pieces based onthe Kalevala
folklife studies
Term coined by folklorists to serve instead of "folklore," because it is more general. The word never caughton, and has since come to mean any aspect of folklore that isn't verbal
stereotyped diction - milk-white, blood-red
The ethnic group that makes up a significant portion of the population of Louisiana. Descendents of the Acadians.Combination of French, Creole, Native American, etc. Known for Mardi Gras. (We watched the Cajun Mardi Gras film,twice I think
generally takes form of supposedly factual account of occurrences/experiences that seem to validate folkbeliefs/superstitions (e.g. memorate, fabulate); though the New World lacks the rich supernatural bestiary of the OldWorld, the U.S. is notable for its summer camp creaturelore, witchcraft legends, alien visits, ghost stories, and humorousantilegends. goes beyond scientific understanding or the laws of nature. Supernatural legends are supposedly factualaccounts of personal experience with the supernatural that validate folk belief and superstition. Certain superstitions (suchas crossing fingers and knocking on wood) are related to the supernatural, especially witches
William Thoms
an English scholar who coined the word "folk-lore" to replace "popular antiquities" which referred to theintellectual remains of earlier cultures in the tradition of the peasant class. The word, "folklore" itself is not a "folk word";it was coined by a nineteenth-century English scholar, William J. Thoms, to supply an Anglo-Saxon word to replace theLatin-basd term "popular antiquities," referring to the intellectual "remains" of earlier cultures surviving in the traditionsof the peasant class.
Albert Lord
Developed oral-formulaic theory (Parry-Lord system) a formal text analysis of thematic formulae and rhythmic patterns of ballads. Auth. "Singer of Tales" Argued "literature" like Homeric epics are transcipt.s of not only oral perf. but oral comp. and contained improv.s from mental stockpile of verbal formulae and them. constructs.
Satanic panic
a type of rumor panic centering on Satanists which is transmitted via a "snow-ball" process that provides aplausible explanation for some even (Jeffery Victor). The panic evolves as an "interactive process of collective behavior"usually stemming from one traumatic event such as a suicide or a mutilated animal. Ellis writes about rumor panics at theprom while Victor focuses on how satanic panics spread through small towns. Ostension, regular or pseudo. Caused by atriggering event, misinformation. Rumors compile and snowball, and are believed on a massive scale so as to create panicamidst a large group of people: Jeffrey Victor, "Satanic Cult Rumors as Contemporary Legend," Western Folklore 49:1(1990), 51-81
broadside ballads
sensational, plain language, versified songs that are printed on sheets for street distribution, pop ballads / "Hang down your head, Tom Dooley"
a method of identifying witches by pricking them with needles or other sharp objects in order to find an area of theskin that did not bleed or cause pain. This area was called the "witch's mark". process used in Europe in the 16th and 17thcenturies to determine whether someone was a witch or not. The process evolved because it was believed that there was aspot on a witch's skin, a witch's mark, from which they would not bleed
Santino defines a ritual as a symbolic gesture which upholds the social traditions and cohesion of a given folkgroupin contrast to a festival which is a symbolic gesture which serves to subvert or provide escape from social traditions. set ofactions performed which usually have to do with religion. Recurrent and repeated symbolic enactments, culture, andceremonies often carried out with a reverence of the sacred or at least some overarching institution or principle (state,government, alma mater etc
gesunkenes Kulturgut
German for "sunken cultural goods." The term describes the belief that folklore derives from thegradual debasement of elite culture i.e. the trickle-down effect of culture leads to folklore
surface structure
in Levi-Strauss's structural analysis of myth, surface structure provides us with the narrative/story body(and deep stucture gives us an explication of the myth/symbolism); surface structure of various myths may differ fromculture to culture, but the deep structure is homologous with myths in cultures separated by space/time. in linguistics,surface structures are the words and phrases that a person speaks, while the rules of grammar that allow for meaningfulsentences are called "deep structures."
notorious black folk bandit also known as Stagger Lee; based on Lee Shelton, who shot William "Billy" Lyons ina gambling dispute over a Stetson hat in 1895; arises from African-American oral folklore (songs, toasts, folktales).Traditionally, Stackolee pulls his gun on Billy, who pleads to be spared for the sake of his wife/children. Stackolee, acoldblooded killer, shows no compassion and murders his opponent. Stackolee's fate deviates in different multiforms. Insome, the authorities are too afraid of Stackolee to arrest him; in others, the judge refuses to sentence him to jail becausehe's afraid Stackolee will return for revenge; in still others, Stackolee goes to hell after being executed but is so "bad" hetakes rulership over the place. Symbol of resistance and freedom (to act)-- defiance of white authority and conventions,esp potent image for oppressed southern African Americans. black folk badman hero that first appeared in ballads aroundthe turn of the century. The ballads center on the murder of Billy Lyons; Stackolee is usually brought to justice. Theballads are realistic, and Stackolee is usually a sympathetic character. Through time, the ballads change and Stackoleebecomes more unrealistic and supernatural
Aanti Arne
student of Kaarle Krohn, created Type-Index class. system for Euro folklore in 1910. Organized variants of Indo-Euro folklore. Type-Index classifies whole plots of folktales.
This term is very closely linked to Albert Lord's oral-formulaic theory as elaborated in Singerof Tales. At the core, it suggests that every performance of a folk song is essentially unique, as the performer composesthe song during the performance from a variety of formulas and themes. As a folk song can be sung continuously forhours or days, it is not performed from memory (as a ballad is) but is instead derived from techniques of composition thatthe singer has learned from his master(s). A folk song, in other words, is "a living art" that is inseparable from itsperformance
Ann Izzard
She was accused of being a witch in Great Paxton, England in 1808. Superstitious townsfolk violently attack and harass her despite law and church intervening to protect her. Mitchell uses her example as witch panic AFTER witch crazes of 16th c.
Originally a pagan holiday celebrated when the spirit world and our world became linked and spirits couldinvade our spaces. Condemned by the Catholic Church that tried to turn it into All Saints Day. Today it is one of themost popular adult holidays of the year. You will probably want to check your notes for more details about this as well.
are the prose fiction of oral literature. They are traditional narratives that are strictly fictional and told primarilyfor entertainment, although they may also illustrate some truth or moral. Cinderella, is an example—also any story that isfictional, like the 3 little pigs, the boy who cried wolf. These are essential to the fabric of the community or race. Veryimportant to define who someone is or culture is
paradigmatic structuralism
Levi-Strauss' theory on myth, paradigmatic structuralism states that the component parts of amyth have meaning only in relation to each other and in context (paradigmatic). In contrast to the syntagmatic approachwhich distills components to individual units, paradigmatic analysis can tell us about variants in myths because weunderstand that details (like why a snake guards a tomb instead of a lion) are paradigms for other meaning. Paradigmaticstructuralism is different from syntagmatic structuralism, which breaks variants of folktales down into pieces based onactions, resulting in a plot structure that only includes the essential or important parts of the tale. Paradigmaticstructuralists consider syntagmatic structure (all possible plot variations of a single tale) to be the deep structure of an itemand the spoken or written variants of this tale as the manifestation or surface structure. While syntagmatic structuralismallows a researcher to identify related or similar plots of a tale, paradigmatic structuralism allows the variants of a singleplot to be explored in terms of their differences of action, or language.
folklore group
Groups that have at least one or many things in common; including folk traditions. Has to be at least twopeople, if only one person is celebrating some folk tradition, then it is not a folklore grou
The acting out of folk culture. Think back to that ridiculous clip we saw of Urban Legend before Halloween.The guy who cuts out the girl's liver and leaves her in a tub of ice is an act of ostension. Life imitates folklore
rite of passage
a ritual that marks a change, usually of social status. Arnold van Gennep identifies three stages of a rite ofpassage: preliminal, liminal, and postliminal. The preliminal state identifies the initiate as a member of an unitiated group,the liminal rite marks the passage, and the postliminal phase reaccepts the initiate into the group. involves three stages:preliminary (separation), liminary (threshold), postliminary (aggregation). Ceremonies to mark changes in the life cycle.Commonly practiced in primitive cultures, but still exist today: weddings, losing baby teeth, initiation to sports teams orclubs, birthdays. Transition rituals
traditional prose narrative, which in the society where it is told, is considered to be a truthful account of whathappened in the remote past. have been defined as traditional prose narratives, which, in the society in which they are told,are considered to be truthful accounts of what happened in the remote past. Typically, they deal with the activities ofgods and demigods, the creation of the world and its inhabitants, and the origins of religious rituals. Whenever mythspurport to account for such matters as origins of geographic features, animal traits, rites, taboos, and customs, they are known as explanatory or etiological narratives.
folk craft
often useful as well as decorative - amateur labor resulting in traditional homemade objects that are primarilyfunctional. Examples: saddle, weather vane
Halloween sadist
The idea of the Halloween sadist was first put forth by articles in the New York Times and Newsweek inthe 1970s in semi-sensational articles. Stories of random people doing evil things to children—such as putting razorblades inside apples and candy—became popular and accepted. An author named Best has reviewed all documentationrelating to such events and discovered no more than 15 reported cases of such actions have occurred in a single year andthat no children have been reported dead. He says "there is no justification ... that Halloween sadism stands as a majorthreat to US children. However, word of mouth transmit this urban legend, and the response represents an example ofrumor panic
azande chicken poisoning oracle
traditional prose narrative with geographical basis, generally secular, less remote past, remarkable and bizarre eventshappening to normal people
survival (folklore as)
folklore originates as remnants from a more primitive state of nature; championed by Andrew Lang;formerly had many supporters but has fallen into disuse in modern times due to its somewhat patronizing nature. pushesthe origin of folklore back to a savage stage of civilization and maintains that contemporary folklore is an inheritance orsurvival from the past.
Parry-Lord project
project between Albert Lord and Milman Parry to "lore against literature" by developing an oral-formulaic theory to epics. Parry, a classicist, traveled to South Slavic countries to record epic songs to prove that epics inthe European tradition such as Homer's Illiad and Odyssey are in fact forms for oral lore. Parry and Lord, by comparingoral formulae and themes, demonstrated the compositional and lyric similarities between epic songs in folklore and"literary" epics such as the Illiad. The Parry-Lord project provided a compelling answer to the "Homeric Question" ofhow the Odyssey and Illiad could have been orally preserved for so long. This was the effort by Milman Parry and AlbertLord to document and classify a great deal of oral epic folkloric traditions. Their work became known as the Parry-LordSystem, and the Parry-Lord Project was the actually collecting, analyzing, and classifying of the information. Thevolumes that constitute Serbo-Croatian Heroic Songs (SCHS), the publication series of the Milman Parry Collection ofOral Literature at Harvard University, have been far the most significant and influential source for hard evidence of this longstanding and widespread tradition of oral epics
unctions refer to an essential element in Vladimr Propp's Syntagmatic Structuralism system of classification forfolktales/fairy tales. Proppian syntagmatic structuralism is largely concerned with narrative templates and the functions ofthe various actors. Propp defines function as "an act of a character, defined from the point of view of its significance for the course of the action." He finds it less important who or what the dramatis personae but rather his/her function in thestory. He finds there to be 31 functions, and 7 dramatis personae. This differs from the classification systems put forth byAntti Aarne and Stith Thompson
repetitions in content that appear in the ancient epic
devil's pact
witch's agreement with the devil "pacto cum diablo"
folk art
purely decorative or representational items produced by traditional means. The traditional construction and use ofan artifact establish it as "folk." Want to differentiate b/w, say, daily work of farm family and its completely utilitariantoolbox, on the one hand, and products of elite art community on the other. Examples: quilts for display, needle-work
hypothetical origin from of a given folktale
motif Index
a method of classifying myths by narrative elements created by Stith Thompson. Each motif is an unusualreoccurring unit within the myth such as an animal (eg. speaking horse) or an action (eg. God creates man after manyfailed experiments). The index organizes myths by these motifs in thirteen general categories which are also subdivided.The index arose as an answer to the problem of organizing Native-American myths by theme and plot alone because ofthe immense variation. a massive catalog of traditional narrative elements with bibliographic references, this index hasapplications in folklore study far beyond myth comparisons. "Motif" refers to units of traditional narratives, not to otherpatterns evident in folklore. Motifs are often international in distribution, but similar motifs are not necessarily relatedhistorically, and thus mastery of the Motif Index is important to much folklore scholarship
Formula refers to a group of words which is regularly employed under the same metrical conditions to express agiven essential idea and provides a means for telling a story and verse. Formulae were not especially useful to theaudience, but rather to a singer of an epic when composing his tale. This is the theory/observation posited by Lord andParry, and was inegral to their work on oral formulaic theory
syntagmatic structuralism
one of the synchronic approaches to folktale study; seeks to characterize folktales withoutreference to historical change; Alan Dundes begins by defining minimal units distinct from specific tale contents, thenapplies syntagmatic approach in which folktale elements are analyzed in their original linear sequence. a syntagmaticstructural approach to folktales is one in which the elements of a folktale are left in their original linear sequence, asopposed to a paradigmatic approach, where the elements are rearranged to reveal their underlying structure. Asyntagmatic structural study essentially analyzes the syntax of folklore
The imitation folklore attributed to a group that never possessed it. An example could be the publication of NativeAmerican poems and folktales in to a popular book by a big book publishing company in New York. In doing this theyare taking the folklore and other folk types and putting it in to a book that publicizes i
Vladimir Propp
Russian structuralist, analyzed the basic plot components of Russian folk tales to identify their simplestirreducible narrative elements. His approach leaves folktale elements in their original linear sequence. Morphology of theFolktale
AT type
from the type-index, refers to a classification of the whole plot in categories such as "Animal Tales", "OrdinaryFolktales", "Jokes and Anecdotes"An example of an ordinary folktale-type is "The Girl as Helper in the Hero's Flight".The AT type classification system is a way to classify types of fairy tales. The name comes from A for Aarne and T forThompson. Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson developed the system. The initial catalogue was developed and published in1910 by Aarne under the title "Index of Types of Folktale" in German. Aarne's system was devised to organize and indexScandinavian collections. Aarne's system was translated and enlarged by the American folklorist Stith Thompson in 1928,and revised in 1961. The indexed AT motifs are limited mainly to European and European-derived tales that are known tohave been told by mouth at the time they were published. The AT index yields a single classification system, and with itshelp different variants may be grouped or banded together under the headings of AT-number, which serve as theircommon reference. AT-numbers may be used to (1) identify tale types, (2) isolate motifs, (3) locate cultural variants. Ifthere are variants that include other motifs, (more AT-numbers), the motif numbers are given too.The classification isdone as follows:
a female who practices magical beliefs and is believed to have some powers of the supernaturalWitchcraft. Witchcraft, oracles, and magic are "like three sides to a triangle". Witchcraft as an explanation of theinexplicable, as a means of social control, as a social safety valve. Witch beliefs have normative effect on behavior (i.e.moral code supported by sanctions which follow the suspicion of witchcraft). Witchcraft systems allow grudges to bebrought out into the open and dealt with. Accusations are patterned and typically fall where there is an ambiguous equalrelationship. Legends of witchcraft, a staple of colonial American folklore, are still circulated in modern America, thoughmostly in the backwoods or rural towns. Magically influencing animals, controlling the formation of butter in a churn, and praying to the Devil are all typical motifs of witchcraft. Rituals of witchcraft make use of special gestures and symbols,and some body movements are believed to have the power to cast the "evil eye" on someone else or to avert its power tooneself (eg. the "Devil's Horns" formed by extending the forefinger and little finger of one hand and clenching the others)
as defined by Parry and Lord, an epic is a long narrative poem presenting characters of high position in adventuresforming an organic whole through their relation to a central heroic figure. Some conventions of epics are opening inmedias res, epithets (repitition of stock phrases), and enumeration of catalogues and genealogies. An epic is a lengthynarrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to aculture or nation. Oral poetry may qualify as an epic, although even the works of such great poets. One important epicwould be the Kalevala, which was derived largely from folklore. Usually epics are oral in nature and are to be acted outand sang, or at least spoken, which is important in being
Milman Parry
co-created the "Parry-Lord" system of oral-formulaic theory. He was a classics scholar by training whowanted to set "lore against literature" to answer the "Homeric Question" of how did Homer write these eminent works ofpoetry? His answer was that both the Illiad and the Odyssey had their roots in oral tradition and one must set oral againstwritten literature to prove it. Thus he went on to record South Slavic epic songs and compared the form of oral composition of those epics to Homer in terms of themes and oral formulas. A Harvard University folklorist, Milman Parrydeveloped the "Parry-Lord" system of analyzing thematic formulas and rhythmic patterns. The system was developed forthe study of Balkan epic songs , but has also been applied to Anglo-American ballads, and to American Folk Sermons.This brand of formal text analysis is also known as the oral-formulaic theory in analyzing folklore
This is viewed as subversive and challenging social order. Participants identify as cohesive groups, eventsintegrate individuals and maintain folkgroup through shared, recurrent positively reinforcing performance. It is a placefor instance where people of the same ethnic group can wear traditional garb—like in the Puerto Rican festival in NYC
literally the physical communication that accompanies the communication of folklore, it is important becausethe functional approach to folklore examines how lore manifests traditional modes of thinking and communicationthrough performance. performance is the central characteristic of folklore. Performance represents an actualization ofunderlying cultural premises. Folklore is an "event", each representation, telling, performance, or recreation is unique inthat it is impossible to perform exactly the same thing more than once. Therefore it is important to consider not only the"text" of the lore but also the context in which it is performed. In the past folklore was necessarily unique each time itwas viewed because the technology to capture it in a photograph or on a video camera or recording device did not exist.popular culture - in a culture divided into folk, popular, and elite, popular culture represents a "mainstream" mass culture thattransmits traditions through mass communication such as television and popular print. Popular culture is relevant tofolkloric study because the transmission of folk tradition into popular culture eliminates the significance of that folk item(eg. The Rural Idyll leaves folk culture to entire elite culture of a museum and is then consumed in a printed book for thepopular culture) also known as normative culture. It is items of the culture that are popular, mass, mainstream, andtransmitted mainly in print or by other formal means. Popular culture is the middle of the 3 different forms of culture:folk, normative, and elite
malleus maleficarum
German book published in 1487 outlining the nature and appearance of witches. The image that theauthors create of witches still exist largely untouched today
characteristic/defining way of passing on folk craft and art
Stith Thompson
American folklorist who translated the Finnish The Types of the Folktale; collaborated with Aarne tocreate the AT type classification system; wrote Motif-Index of Folk-Literature, a 6-volume work that catalogs traditionalnarrative elements with bibliographic references/infinitely expandable through a system of "points" and is primarily usedin folklore studies. folklorist who introduced the historic-geographic method for studying folklore. He is also famous forhis study of motifs, which include narrative elements like objects, characters, actions, and concepts
incremental repetition
several lines repeated with slight increment (change), type of refrain
narrative detached from reality with fantastic elements, 2nd and 3rd person narratives, develop into legends
1st hand experience/narrative that has much in common but after enough repetition becomes a fabulate
Old Wives tales
a type of urban legend in the form of a proverb generally passed down from woman to child aboutnurtrition, sexuality, and puberty. These tales tend to discourage unwanted behavior in children.osculum infame - literally "kiss of shame", it is the alleged greeting that witches make to the devil by kissing his posterior. isthe name of a witch's supposed ritual greeting upon meeting with the Devil. The name means The Shameful Kiss, or TheKiss of Shame since it involved kissing the devil's backside, his other mouth. According to folklore, it was this kiss thatallowed the Devil to seduce women. This is relevant to the witchcraft/ fear panic section that we studied that included the"Devil at the prom" and the halloween scares
American folklore
as studied by American Folklore Society, est. 1888 wanted to preserve Native American and African American folklore before it died out.
occupational folklore
olklore organized by occupations (eg. Pilots, EMTs). Occupational folklore can be viewed throughan esoteric lens, folklore from the outside about a group, or an exoteric lens, folklore within the group about itself.Tangherlini's "Storytelling tactics among paramedics" and the film, "talking trauma", provide a good example. this is thetraditions, legends, myths, etc...that develop around people's occupational groups. For instance, the old rugged outdoorcallings are associated with vigorous oral traditions: axe logging, raft and barge freighting, sailing before the mast, andrunning cattle were all activities rich in folklore. The same can be said for today's occupations, as jet pilots, journalists,tour guides, and even members of the clergy have rich esoteric (meaning told within the group) oral traditions of languageand lore that are little known outside these groups. The folklore surrounding occupational groups like computerprogrammers has even become exoteric (meaning told by outsiders about the group) in addition to the esoteric terms,stories, and pranks that are told in the group
Hiawatha was a 19th century epic written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, a very popular poet in his time. It isconsidered the first well-known epic poem similar to those found in other countries, such as Kalevala and Gilgamesh.Such epics are often considered to be an important part of national identity, thus the significance of it as the first suchepic. An epic itself is often defined as "A lengthy narrative poem in which action, characters, and language are on aheroic level and style is exalted and even majestic."
folk religion
Views and practices of religion that exist among the people apart from and alongside the strictly theologicaland liturgical forms of the official religion. These traditional unofficial religious attitudes/actions manifest in a variety ofways: prayer, veneration of religious objects, blessings, faith-promoting stories, elaborate folk-religious organizations(e.g. voodoo)
narrative folksong
tale type
from the type-index, refers to a classification of the whole plot in categories such as "Animal Tales", "Ordinary Folktales", "Jokes and Anecdotes"An example of an ordinary folktale-type is "The Girl as Helper in the Hero's Flight"

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