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copy deck
20th century design
technological techniques - CTP (ads/ editorial produced without film)
supply and demand
mag prices effected by readers interest (ex: Time & Newsweek could raise cover price when Watergate going on)
soft/ hard offers
any good test will have two/three diff. prices and soft/ hard offers
1920s dramatic change in content
when Time, Reader's Digest and New Yorker were created in response to shifts in attitude toward work & leisure time after WWI. BREVITY/BRILLIANCE
third step to establishing concept
identify your audience
distribution expenses
costs include in-house distribution salaries, commissions given to wholesalers, postage to subscribers
Magazine uses & gratifications
cognitive, affective, personal, social, tension release
best time to mail
right after Christmas or June/ September
Cost for an advertiser to reach 1,000 readers. Help determine value of a magazine ad.
best mailing lists
1. those who have subscribed to other mags by mail 2. to other fields by mail
rate base
the # that consumer magazines in highly competitive fields guarantee for circulation to advertisers
insert pages that contain ads but also editorial matter that may resemble that in the magazine
Time's content driven by four concepts
1. week's news would be organized logically in short departments 2. while both sides of a story told, would be evaluate and interpret what news meant 3. writing would be crisp, curt, complete 4. emphasis on personalities who made the news
Printed and bound publications offering in-depth coverage of stories often of a timeless nature. Their content may provide opinion and interpretation as well as advocacy. They are geared to a well-defined, specialized audience and they are published regularly, with a consistent format.
Consumer magazines
Created for popular consumption. Sold on newsstand or by subscriptions. Usually contain advertising; readers are important because of their potential as consumers
generic advertising
closely connected with field served (cosmetics in women's mag)
paid circulation
someone has bought either a single copy or subscription
second step to establishing concept
sharing ideas with friends and relatives
difference between mag. and books
magazines must be born repeatedly. with books, one version and it's completet's complete
PR magazines
Also called corporate communications magazines. Most common of all. Tell employees what's happening in organization, explain it to clients and smooth the way for organization to deal with outside agencies.
monitoring costs of ad dept.
1. The % costs of net advertising income 2. ad costs per ad page
A narrowly defined focus
Society and association magazines
Come as one benefit of membership. Ex: Smithsonian. May carry advertising. Most sold through subscriptions.
focus group interviews
depend on magnifying results of in-depth thinking by using benefits of group dynamics.
Sum of number of people who buy on newsstand and number of people who buy through a subscription
when to expect results
some 40 days after mailing
magazine readers are
self selected
first step to establishing concept
development of substantial ideas
direct mail test
known as "dry" test b/c product being tested isn't actually being published
Magazines are
in-depth, feature approach, specialized content & audience
two mag. methods of research
focus group and in-depth research
non-generic advertising
of interest to consumers, such as ads for cars in those same women's mags
advertising expenses
salaries, development of media kits, research and creation of audience profiles
18th century design
hand labor- paper made by hand, type set by hand, printing necessities imported from England so at a standstill during Revolution
circulation revenue
revenues before costs are deducted
fourth step to establishing concept
determine who else wants to reach those readers
magazines need to be sold twice
first readers, then advertisers
rate card
a listing of a publication's ad rates together with info needed for advertisers who are planning to use the mag
five factors with ongoing impact on mag. industry from 1741 to present
1. literacy and education 2. content 3. appearance 4. transportation/delivery 5. production/technology
questions to ask self
is it a book? is it a fad?
controlled circulation
controlled = euphemism for free
Organizational plan
Staff size, organization chart, job duties
hot names on a list
those that have subscribed during only the past 3 months
business plan
demonstrates interconnectedness of product + its economics
subscription expenses
postage, creation of materials such as direct mail flyers, reminder mailings to current subscribers
content of 18th century mags
1. literally storehouses of material- gathered from British pamphlets, books, mags2. content was broader than newspapers 3. wanted to depict American life in favorable light. 4. articles were lengthy and unsigned b/c publisher was also editor/primary author/printer. 5. contributors incl. great American figures
major financing
amount you need to take magazine to profitable state
production expenses
printing, paper, prepress, press proofs
sell-through rate
# of copies given to newsstand/ # of copies sold
admin/ operating expenses
offices, equipment, salaries
traits creativity manager must have
1. creativity in developing ways to read readers 2. understanding of statistics 3. ability to deal with infinite detail
19th century design
mass production introduced during last decade- assembly lines, etc. by 1871, could simultaneously print both sides of a continuous role of paper. Color part of process by 1860. Photographs became common. In 1866, Linotype machine eliminated need to set type by hand
editorial expenses
salaries for staff, freelance etc
3 ways to test potential sale of paid circulation magazines
1. subscriptions through direct mail 2. subscriptions through subscription agents 3. copies on newsstand
projections for new magazines
we often call for response rates of 6% or 8%
consists of acquiring, communicating with, and renewing readers of a magazine
soft offer
might attract more interest
content of 19th century mags
1. mags became broader in content with fiction, plays, essays, poetry etc. 2. literature dominated content until 1890s. 3. paid editors/contributors became norm around mid-century 4. by end of century, most trades/professions had at least one mag. devoted to it
ratio between cover price and the promoted cost of the magazine in direct mail materials
can potentially find money for you
Marketing plan
Decisions on promotion, frequency, circulation, distribution & budget
Trade magazines
Content is job related and audience consists of readers in specific occupations
Three to five tables of contents to show breakdown/ types of depts. and features
19th century
saw literacy rising to 75%. higher in n/e states and particularly low along frontier
Magazine types
Consumer, trade, organization, other (literary, Sunday supplements, free urban, e-zines)
when first American magazines were established
single copy expenses
commissions to wholesalers, to newsstand sellers, special promos for issues
Custom magazines
Also called sponsored publications. Type of PR magazine. Sent to clients as a benefit of purchasing a particular product or service, but seldom present direct information about the activities of the organization
current first year survival rate
> 40% of mags survive first year
20th century
with niche audiences, capable of reaching just about every American. higher education enrollment continuing to rise.
try two diff. copy approaches
two diff. mail packages are written from scratch by two diff. copywriters
seed money
includes amounts you need to get started. at greatest risk b/c all you have is an idea
After Civil War
literacy no longer domain of well-educated few.
natural circulation level
readers most interested in subject matter and reached without undue strain/expense
secondary readership
pass along readership is great for mags
giving all the reasons why someone should buy ads in your magazine
distribution of profit
seed money investors get 3-5x the % of ownership per $ they invest compared with major investors
18th century mags
few in # b/c few readers. in 1741, pop. only 1 mil. female literacy < male literacy.
in-depth interviews
-normally done one on one.
Direct marketing
includes direct mail, advertising in other media, Internet & insert cards. Includes a mechanism for reader response - a printed or online form to fill out/ number to call/ coupon to send in
fifth step to establishing concept
question yourself - why doesn't this magazine already exist?
Typical business plan
Title, Magazine type, Editorial philosophy, Audience, Identity/ comparisons to competitors, formula, organizational plan, marketing plan
while associate mags are supported by readers in this form, some go beyond and make available to non-members
groups involved in financing
1. seed money investors 2. major investors 3. key employees 4. YOU
outlets that sell to retailers
publishers arrange to have material sent electronically direct to printer, in which case publisher doesn't handle it at all
# of wholesalers who delivered mags to newsstands was drastically reduced
Types of organization magazines
society and association, public relations, custom
dry test
send only a direct mail package announcing the magazine before the creation of an actual publication
easiest way to establish price
look at competing magazines. don't make it too low
involves all circulation record keeping activities
attributes of mags that attract ads
-universally read, devoted to specific interests, portable, have extensive info, high graphic impact
what first renewal is called
hard offer
typically result in more subscribers
only constant
concept - it is your guideline, your mission statement (Husni)

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