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Acephalous Scoeities
Without any leader, egalitarian, hunters and gathers; !Kung from Botswana (Hunter's and gatherer's), decisions are made by tribal consensus
Achieved status
gained through accomplishment, voting; any democracy
Ascribed status
born into, passed down, lineage, Guest of the Sheik would be ascribed
Grains of Grass: elders are a burden on society and seen as a drain on resources; leave them to die occassionally- would rather feed the young people

In times of famine peopl eexcommunication eldeers; forgotten eat grains of grass, women use identity as mother and nuture; men have rights over childrens labor and bridewealth; example of migration as well as people leave rural zambia; WITHCRAFT
belief in animal spirits, early form of religion, Hmong; Vietnam believe trees have souls
big man
achieved status through recognition of skill, wisdom, or possession; most important man in a tribe; trongba (land-holding group, Nyinba); big man occurs Polynesia and Melanesia; primary responsibility is to redistribute resources

Kula ring: annual ceremony exchange system; only big man participate; gain more prestige in trading arm bands and necklaces; symbolizes trade connections
centralized power
consolidated, above chiefdom, think United States
ascribed, passed down through lineage; chief has a council; have certain privledges,
contagious magic
physical piece of another person's body used in magic, hexes, curses; AIDs and Accusations
imitative magic (sympathetic magic)
voodoo dolls, images in one's head; AIDS and Accusation
communities of the same ethnic group are spread out over a large area; term often used in studies of migration; Jewish community, African slaves, live in different places but held together by specific commonality; formerly concentrated in the same place; Puerto Rican community
displaced person
person who is forced to move because of political pressure or natural disaster, REFUGEE; Gwembe people displace Do-Kay
DISPLACED PERSON, the term refugee is often assoicated with movement outside of a country; Croatian people
Egalitarian Societies
everyone who is considered a person of society is considered equal (Declaration of Independence) hunters and gather's !KUNG
power within a boundary; I can have a gun in my hand so i have power but i don't have authority
ethnic conflict
in former yugoslavia very different groups who don't like each other; different ethincities don't like each other, WAR; hutus and tutsis Rwanda; SERBS WERE PISSED AS BALLS WHEN OTHER PEOPLE CLAIMED INDEPENDENCE
ethnic identity
a culture, language, group of values, associated with a group of people who often have common ancestors; Turks in Germany; Ogbu, Oakland schools were stripping blacks of their eithnic identity forcing them to assimilate with white culture
free zones
an attempt to boost employment; no taxes; JAMAICA JAMAICA
conduct trade in West Africa, example of diaspora within West Africa; retribilzation,
when the dominant culture imposes itself on everyone else CHRISTMAS ; OGBUS
Hmong trobiand islanders (their formation of taxation is the redistribution of yams pigs); small gardens bigger extended families use slash and burn agricutlure; equilibrium with environment, can't support a whole city; move on to different plots of land
illegal migration
migrating without papers; Haiti boats
internal migration
mostly rural to urban; Post Mao lifestyle
labor migration
China post-Mao; bracero program in Mexico brought seasonal workers
chiefdom is a type of leadership
people who move, internal external whatever you
expected social behaviors, can change; shame and gossip; Turks in Germany reciprocity
animal husbandry, raise your animals for a living

Bedouins and Nuer
political community
belong to more than group WW2 Japanese-Americans; loyalty to a political group, two different political communties Vietnam pro and anti communist; Vietnamese living in France who is pro commie
political teams
democratic party is a partay
ceremony for North Native Americans wehre there is a big feast, host gives away possessions let's burn a canoe; supposed to prompt reciprocity at another Potlack; Kwakiutl
ability to influence and control other people
used to classify people, dividing onthe basis of physical characterisitcs
systematic discrimination against a certain phenotype; associating intelligence with color; apartheid, In Search of Respect, structural violence
earliest form of exchange, creates a community, sharing the meat, Turkey
big man of trobiand islands redristribute pugs and yams
people who had to leave b/c of something usually international
altering values to join two groups together in order to make a united political front

Detribilization: adopiting somebody elses values
rural migration
youngsters move to urban China
sacred and profane
sacred: bible, religious value, blessed by someone
profane: everyday use, water bottle,

*Depends on perspective*
Sex trafficking
sexual esploitation, more profitable than drug trafficaking
shamans can be healters

- have to be trained after being called upon by the spirits

-all shamans believe in existence of a spiritual world believe in a trance which is an alteresd state of consciousness
- shamans can be healers of mental shiat
- mediators between supra normal and normal worlds
- maintain pscyho mental equilibrium, talk telephatically, or visit them
AIDS and accusation

when you violate social norms
can be medicine men, women

use potions, herbs, cauldrons

can also be a shaman; healers in ghana; socerers do voodoo
structural violence
kills people slowly by preventing them from getting the basic needs to maintain a successful life; En Search of Respect; primo couldn't get a job
swidden agriculture
SLASH AND BURN ; horticulturalists
transnational communities
Taiwanese; network of communities; can act in their current country on behalf of their old country
destructoin, not a normal social relationship, feud back and forth, sporadic violence is by compensation

2 ways ogetting rid

conflict resolutions

social control slash punishment: raping a guy up the ass
voluntary and involutary minorities
come to this country by choicein search of a better life, better job, more willing to assimilate, do better in school, wanna uphold their sense of honor

involutary minorities is forced movement slaves are the biggest exampler, or conquered or colonized
fear of foreigners

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