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Liturgy Final


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1559, Elizabethan Settlement on Eucharist
1. Removes anti-Catholic polemic (no longer pray for delivery from Bp of Rome)
2. Words of administration from 1549 (presence) added to 1552 words (remembrance)
3. Black rubric dropped
4. Vestments ordered to be used (this is ignored)
5. It's pretty Protestant, though neither conservatives nor Puritans are happy
6. Forced through House of Lords
Puritans on the Eucharist
1. it is a memorial; presence is rejected
2. strong Calvinists, so sacraments work only on the elect
3. sacraments have no mystical value
4. table in middle of room
5. valued preaching above all else
1.William Laud was ABofC under Charles I, executed 1645
2. Revive ceremonies in the Eucharist
3. Sacerdotalism, emphasized role of priest over laity
4. Emphasized role of church, sanctity of building and grounds
5. Altar fenced in by a rail to keep it from being pulled away from the wall
6. Medieval practices revived
7. Alienated both Puritans and other Protestants
8. Liturgical policy helped fuel English Civil War
Interregnum 1649-1660
1. Scotts introduce a BCP based on 1549, which sparks rebellion
2. BCP and bishops banned in England
3. Parliament institutes the Westminster Directory: outline structure for worship rather than specified text (think Rite 3)
4. BCP use continues underground
5. Liturgical scholarship by Anglicans turns to Patristic texts
1662 BCP on Eucharist
1. Charles II again compels BCP use after civil war
2. Savoy Conference: Puritan and Laudian proposals failed
3. Loophole allowed those "ready and desirous" to be confirmed to recieve communion
4. Fairly conservative and Protestant, though communion was offered 4/yr in rural areas or 1/month in cities
5. Consecration becomes a "moment" again
Restoration church after Civil War
1. Emphasis on preparation; receiving communion is tied to catechetical knowledge
2. Good Sunday attendance, but Puritans rejected holy days
3. Ceremonies in the Eucharist became richer
4. Restoration of monarchy (Charles II comes out of exile into power)
Thomas Cranmer on the Eucharist
Who: ABofC (ordained by Henry VIII)
What: believed that church supported the commonwealth
When: 1489-1556
Where: England

1. Nothing happens to elements; it is faith that makes them real (hearts are lifted, Bucer style)
2. No sense of sacrifice
1548 Order of Communion
Went into effect April 1, 1548
Vernacular language
Communion in both kinds
Heavy didactic element (exhortation)
Interim measure
Prayer of humble access was like priest's prayer in Roman rite
Words of institution from the Roman order
Borrowed a lot from the Roman rite
1549 BCP on Eucharist
1. Another interim step
2. Sarum rite was chief influence
3. HAs all classic elements but weak oblation
4. Rejects fencing of altar
5. 2-room service separated by rood screen
6. Clergy can't receive if not enough people to commune
7. All sacrifice is out; it is a memorial
8. Bucer found it conservative, others thought it radical
9. Keeps medieval form but has a different theology
1552 BCP on Eucharist
1. Altar is off the wall and is now a lengthwise table
2. Penitential tone; Decalogue replaced kyrie
3. Is released on All Saints Day 1552
4. Reception of elements is high point (over ceremonial consecration)
5. Vestments replaced by surplice
6. No reserve sacrament
7. No language of consecration or manual action
8. Anamnesis disappears into institution; Oblation is optional; no real Epiclesis; Institution Narrative is the only classic element to remain in place
9. Puritans didn't think it went far enough
10. Disjoined liturgy that tried to look back at early church; a liturgical hack job yet theologically impressive
11. Theology is justification by grace through faith; journey each Sunday through law-gospel-communion by faith
12. Communion 3/yr, enforced on Easter
13. Contained black rubric (first theological rubric) that we kneel in humility not adoration
14. No longer looks/feels like medieval rite
Wesley on Eucharist, 1703-1791
1. Preached constant/frequent receiving of Eucharist
2. 1662 is still official BCP; 1784 communion office
3. Emphasis on praise and thanksgiving
4. Work of the Holy Spirit in Eucharist
5. Eschatalogical implications of the Eucharist
6. Slippery on the issue of presence; between Calvin and real/local presence mainstream Church of England
7. Has all elements but oblation
19th Century Ritualism (later Oxford Movement and then Anglo-Catholicism)
1. Revision of practices rather than text
2. Main questions are relationship to state and apostolicity--ritual concerns come later.
3. Ritual concerns arise; Ritualists adopt RC practices like incense, genuflections, vestments
4. The concern is showing apostolicity of C of E (a branch office of RC Church)
Liturgical movement in 20th century
1. Church of South India was important; worship book is grandfather of liturgical reform
2. Pushed participation of laity (reorganized polity)
3. Local flexibility with reliance on ancient texts
4. Ecumenical scholarship
Vatican II on the Eucharist: Key points of pro-anaphora

1. Restores dignity of Liturgy of Word; the Lord is "really present" in the Word
2. Common lectionary put in place (now includes OT lesson) and adopted by most mainline denominations
3. Prayers of People restored, which desacerdotalized liturgical prayer
Vatican II on the Eucharist: Key points of Eucharistic prayers

1. Restoration of 3-part prayer (blessing, thanksgiving, supplication)
2. Multiple Eucharistic prayers, 3/4 are Eastern in style, the other is old Roman canon. One is ecumenically developed (big move for RCs!)
3. People now exchange the peace; experiential change means no more passive congregation

As a whole, Vatican II calls for vernacular and reverses Trent's standardization to allow local flexibility.
Protestant reforms of Eucharist, catching up with Vatican II
1. Eucharist is more participatory, less passive
2. Eucharist restored to dignity; Word and Sacrament done together
3. 3-yr lectionary adopted; preaching is integrated into liturgy.
4. POP, Peace introduced, which desacerdotalizes the liturgy
5. Reappropriation of offertory also emphasizes laity's role
6. Eucharistic prayer: dominance of 3part form; no longer arguing about Christ's presence but instead see a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving/self-offering; no unified rite, but freedom within structure
Jewish roots of the Eucharist
A. Categories of sacrifice:
1. Whole-burnt offering (holocaust); all is given to God
2. Communion or meal sacrifice (zebach); a meal shared with God
3. Passover, the memorial sacrifice (pesach); the act of remembering is the point of connection

B. Seder: telling of story through explanatory answers to rote Qs throughout the meal

C. Jewish prayer forms:
1. Berakah, table prayer
2. Abraham's 3part prayer of blessing, thanksgiving, and supplication
3. Birkhat ha Mazon, the post-dinner prayer
4. Embolism- additive for particular occasion
NT Eucharist
1. Biggest change is separating Lord's Supper from communal meal; it is ritualized
2. In Mark and Hebrews, Jesus offers The Sacrifice that cannot be repeated; Paul and others speak of an ethical sacrifice of living for God, sacrifice of praise, etc.
3. To which meal do we look, Last Supper or others, for our understanding of the Eucharist? [this can be used in open table argument]
Didache on Eucharist
1. Patristic period document
2. with a prayer for what may be a Eucharist (no words of institution, no quotation of Jesus)
3. Unbaptized are banned from ritual meal
4. No sense of reenacting Calvary, but ethical/praise sacrifice
5. Structurally based on Jewish table grace, with some changes
Justin Martyr on Eucharist
1. Eucharist has become a technical term; Justin speaks of "the thanksgiving"
2. The presider speaks on behalf of all, and the people's amen is their consent to it.
3. There is language of Christ being present (stronger than Paul's language)
4. Things made holy by doing; bread and wine made holy by offering of praise (not in order to sacrifice them)
5. Uses words of institution as commentary, not part of the liturgy; it's the why of what we're doing
Hippolytus on the Eucharist
1. This is a liturgical text rather than commentary; more of a script
2. Follows distinction of 3 orders, no amen needed to ratify
3. First record of institution narrative as part of prayer
4. Has elements of memorial/anamnesis, and offering/oblation
5. Not a reenactment of Calvary, though later developments push in this direction
6. Rome-Alexandrian axis, Syrian patterns
Daily Office
1. No claim that it is a sacrament
2. Daily work of the church (not supposed to be fun)
3. Sanctifies the passage of time (vs. Eucharist which is a disruption of time)
4. Hippolytus adds prayer to Jewish handwashing ritual before work
5. Division of time into hours followed local, secular custom
6. Monastic and cathedral models of prayer, the cathedral being simpler/ more accessible
7. Already 2 office hymns by 2nd century (phos hilaron and gloria in exclesis)
Medieval developments in Daily Office
1. Monastic hours: Prayer becomes the work for some monks (read whole psalter weekly)
2. No longer accessible to the ordinary Christian
3. Clergy become monasticized in their ethos, with obligation of daily office
4. Breviary appears as a shortened office
5. Monastic daily office is predominant
4th Century Daily Office
1. Cathedral office is the norm
2. No evidence of Scripture read in 4th century
3. 2 offices led by clergy during the day
4. Psalms becoming fixed for morning and evening
Early modern developments in Daily Office
1. Devotio Moderna movement tried to appropriate monastic model for laity; daily office was expected
2. Books of hours flourish; laity could follow along in their private devotions
3. Trent replaces daily office with daily mass. Daily prayer no longer marks cyle of day for laity; it is a clergy exercise.
Protestant Reformers and Daily Office
1. Luther and Cranmer try to make daily prayer accessible to public again
2. Cranmer aims for a direct style, based on cathedral model. Scripture reading is at the heart.
3. Cranmer anticipates office done publicly, when folks could attend.
4. There has been enrichment but not real revision since Cranmer.
19th-20th century Daily Office
A. Lutherans adopt simple structure, following Cranmer. LBW reintroduced daily public prayer.

B. In ECUSA, morning prayer becomes primary Sunday worship until 1979 BCP
1. Eucharist becomes principle service for Sundays and feasts
2. Daily office is mostly used in monasteries, seminaries, and private use; seldom done in public.
3. Some presumption that clergy pray the office, but it's not canonical
4. Adds noonday, compline, and a form for individuals and families (daily devotions)
5. Allows lay officiants
6. Free prayer option, prayer for mission, 7-week psalm cycle

C. Church of England has office as mostly clerical function (canonically required); laity may show up or not

D. Taize revives community prayer, office over Eucharist for maximum common ground. RC hasn't had much success with daily public prayer.
Matrimony, NT through Pre-Reformation
1. Early Christians probably didn't alter Jewish (or pagan) practices much for their ritual; Judaism focused on betrothal, also exchange of property
2. NT has discussion about relationship but not ritual
2. Patristic practice substitutes Christian prayers for pagan, adds consent of bishop
3. 4th-5th century, the contract is between the couples and done at the church door
4. 6th-7th centuries, the church takes an increasing role (publishing of banns)
5. Medieval theology adds marriage as a sacrament, though still a way of avoiding sin. Use of 2 rings (mutuality?), mass the next day involves her family giving her hand to priest
6. 10th century- order of marriage is series of prayers for domestic rite (1 ring)
7. 12th century, Anglo-Norman- puts a premium on consent; before this, nobody asked whether the couple wanted this (our rite draws from this)
8. Marriage in the church still not the norm; disputes settled in church courts rather than civil
Reformation on Marriage
A. Luther
1. Marriage is a calling, reflecting a sacrament.
2. Couples are ministers of marriage
3. 1529 Order of Marriage for Common Pastors has considerable biblical material, emphasizing marriage at creation as precedent, and containing material about procreation

B. Calvin
1."Form of confirming marriages before church and congregation" explicitly puts marriage in Sunday service
2. Consent is heart of the rite, makes the marriage
3. Lots of biblical material

C. Cranmer
1. Cognizant of state/civic concerns, as civil service moves inside the church (church as agent of state)
2. Marriage is not quite a calling, but has purposes of procreation, avoidance of fornication, and mutual help/joy (a positive step)
3. Supposed to happen right before Sunday Eucharist, but often was on Satruday. The couple is supposed to receive communion ASAP afterwards.
1928 BCP on Marriage
1. Vows are made mutual by omitting promise to obey
2. Otherwise no major changes until 79
1979 BCP on Eucharist
1. Marriage is primarily for companionship, rather than for procreation and avoiding sin
2. Couple makes the marriage in making vows; community offers support. The service is a blessing of what the couple has already done.
3. Marriage must conform to laws of state
4. Service is intended for the Eucharist.
5. Giving away is at odds with idea of 2 consenting adults; mutuality seen in alternating order of speaking during service
Vatican II on Marriage
1. Consent of the parties remains the cornerstone
2. Happens in the context of the mass
3. Rite is inserted after Liturgy of the Word
Divorce and Remarriage
1. From old, prohibited except in cases adultery or abandonment
2. Church courts didn't have provision for divorce, though Calvin said the innocent partner could remarry (this is as far as Reformed churches went)
3. The Roman Catholic Church didn't allow divorce at all (though there was a property exchange way around that involved husband selling wife to her lover)
20th century Divorce and Remarriage
1. Law and theology allow that getting out of a marriage can save one's life (physically or spiritually)
2. In ECUSA, the issue is ensuring the parties don't make the same mistake, and there's a move in 60s-70s to make remarriage possible. This is recently allowed in England.
3. UCC movement to ritualize divorce with a penitent focus and in the presence of others
4. ELCA has prayers for divorcing persons to be used privately with a pastor
5. The RC solution has been annulment (a true marriage never existed because of a technicality)
Blessing of same-sex unions
1. In 2000, a pastoral provision for same-gender relationships was given
2. In 2003, GC's C051 said local faith communities should be able to celebrate and bless unions as they see appropriate
3. Varied diocesan and parochial rites exist, used with permission of bishops. Language and imagery is familiar, with enrichment of Scripture readings and prayers emphasizing vocation to witness to Christ's love in the world.
Rites for sick, dying, and dead
1. Visitation goes back to Judaism, Jesus' ministry, which relate healing and forgiveness of sins
2. By Hippolytus, a bishop is to be informed of someone's illness, and oil was dropped off and self-adminstered
3. 7th-8th centuries have a rite, to be done as often as needed
4. By High Middle Ages, visitation has become non-repeatable last rites (confession and Eucharist)
5. The rite is overall very penitential until Vatican II, which recovers anointing as a repeatable act
6. 1928 BCP added a provision for laying on of hands and anointing (which Cranmer had removed). Recognized pastoral need to pray for the dead.
7. Recent shift away from penitence toward prayers for help, comfort, relief.
8. Rites for dying have to help the family understand and prepare to say goodbye
1. Jewish roots have praising God as main prayer, though burial was from home not temple (unclean bodies)
2. Greco-Roman practices are Christianized. Christians wear white instead of grey, sing instead of wail, and pay the grave digger (not ferry).
3. Apostolic Constitution (ca.380) said dead are not unclean but holy
4. Middle Ages shift to grief and penitence with emergence of purgatory. Wrath of God.
5. Reformation rejects purgatory uniformly; Luther is the only one that keeps prayers for dead
6. Cranmer's 1549 asks that dead may dwell with God and provides for Eucharist (not a given); 1552 has no mass and no prayer for dead. 1559, 1662 follow but allow full Latin requiem mass for dignitaries.
7. Para-rites (Masonites) develop
8. Modern rite is an Easter liturgy. 1928 allowed Eucharist, and 1979 is framed as a ritual mass. Prayers for dead are included.
1. Vestments decorate the liturgy, not the wearer
2. They compliment the assembly and designate leaders and their functions
3. They are not billboards but the symbol itself
Vestments and source/use
Alb-from basic Roman street clothes
Amice- neckpiece over alb
Chasuble- working class garment (poncho) appropriated by wealthy
Cope- riding cloak from late antiquity
Dalmatic- deacon's Eucharistic vesture
Stole- professional in origin (philosopher's mantle or Jesus' yoke), not adopted from lay street wear
Mitre- from deaconess' hat or Roman slave hat; the only vestment distinguishing bishop from priest
Biretta- pompom hat abolished by Vatican II (except for Cardinals)
Maniple- ceremonial handkercheif on left wrist; a sign of imperial favor
Choir dress- cassock and surplice
Cassock- was street dress for clergy, now vesture for us
Choir dress for bishops- rochet and chimere
Full choir dress- tippet, scarf, and hood
Gown- used in reform tradition

Haberdashery: collar is from 17th century male neckcloth; black shirt was most expensive (lawyers, priests, judges); purple shirt from Ultra Montane branch (not ecumenically minded)
Sacred time
1. Sunday is used to connect with past events and the future of the eschaton; Christianity is unique in this use.
2. Liturgical calendar is anamnesis, calling past to present and making it real
3. Temporale (Easter, Christmas, days associated with life of Christ) and Sanctorale (saints' days) divide the calendar one way
4. Lunar (Easter, Lent) and solar (Advent) divide the calendar another way
Holy week, Lent origins
1. Good Friday broke free in the 4th century, beginning emergence of Triduum
2. Holy Week is the expansion to include Palm Sunday and M-T-W, done for Pilgrims to Jerusalem (Egeria, 5th century)
3. Lent is the last piece to take shape, a catechetical season with fasting as prep for baptism at Vigil. By 325, it is 40 days
Sacred space through Middle Ages
1. First Christians met secretly in homes; in time, were able to build things that didn't have to look like something else
2. Romanesque archtecture emerges in Middle Ages, with cruciform plan, transepts, and apse. Rounded arches needed thick, load-bearing walls, w/o windows
3. Pointed arches allow smaller, lighter walls in High Middle Ages.
4.Gothic enters 11th cent; flying buttresses allow high, thin arches and lighter space. Cruciform shape with nave, apse, and two transepts. Rood screen is built at choir/transept beam, separating nave from apse.
Sacred Space from Reformation on
1. Reformation whitewashes and takes out superfluous things. Table pulled out from wall, pulpits become centerpiece, fonts went to bowls (England). Cranmer wanted longitudinal altar, celebrating from north.
2. Auditory churches were designes for hearing of sermons
3. Neo-classic architecture shows Enlightenment values like reason; steeple pasted atop classical edifice (civic look)
4. Modern arch is Gothic revival, with choirs vesting and processing in (Ritualism).
5. 20th century moves away from neo-Gothic, decreases distance bt people and altar, and ambo/altar may be on same axis
6. In liturical movement influenced arch, altar and font are chief elements. Visibility of altar, font, chair, and ambo are key, and chairs often used rt pews.
1. Baptism is the fundamental sacrament
2. Ordination is initiation into a specific identity, role, or function
3. Orders exist for the community, rt dignity of the person
4. OT priesthood was hereditary, but rabbis were selected and commissioned
5. NT: blood relation mattered in Jerusalem (James) but not Antioch (Paul). Service and oversight are lowest common denominators; no mention of ministerial or liturgical role
Ordination, Patristic-Medieval Church
1. Ignatius identified 3fold orders, with emphasis on deacons
2. In Hippolytus, the only priestly language is in bishop's ordination
3. Monarchical episcopate- 3 bishops required to ordain another, to show universal consent. Liturgies become hierarchical. Porrection of instruments is giving of tools for toolbox; emphasis on who has what role.
4. Porrection eventually overshadows imposition of hands; giving of tools is heart of medieval rite. Hands of priest are anointed, and perosn is vested according to order.
5. Minor orders have persisted
Ordination, Reformation on
1. Reformers suppressed minor orders; it's about priests and lay appointees
2. Ordination is by laity imposing hands
3. Presbyterians have other pastors lay hands; in England/Scotland, it's bishops.
4. For Luther, a pastor ordains; a call to a church is a call to ordination. Eucharist follows the rite.
5. Addition of hand of fellowship from other presbyters.
6. Cranmer is concerned with Commonwealth; monarchs select/commission bishops. He keeps imposition and commissioning, but porrection is reduced to giving of Bible. This transforms the heart of the rite, which took place in private.
7. Ordination by bishops is required in 1662 (after Toleration)
8. 19th cent Apostolicae Curae declared Anglican orders null and void
9. 20th cent: quest for model of ministry continues. Calling of a priest is to do what only a priest can do- sacraments, preaching, soul care (Friedman)
10. ECUSA looks back to Hippolytus, with imposition of hands and consent of congregation.
Classic components of Eucharistic prayer
1. Anamnesis- remembering Christ's saving action on the cross
2. Institution Narrative- describes Christ's action in the Last Supper
3. Oblation- offering of bread and wine to God [offering selves, souls, bodies is self-oblation]
4. Epiclesis- invocation of Holy Spirit upon bread and wine [qualified epiclesis of the people is different]
Eastern vs. Western approaches to Eucharistic prayers
1. Western (specifically Roman) language was utilitarian, straightforward. Big ideas in simple terms; where the East has icons, Rome has the crucifix. Emphasis is quid pro quo.
2. Eastern approach marked by Hellenism. Christian life is a process of diviniation (rather than the West: being saved or damned). Consecration is asked for. Emphasis is thanksgiving.
Medieval theology of Eucharist
A. Question of presence seen different ways:
1. Radbertus argues JC is truly present in elements; the truth is body and blood, while bread and wine become mere figures or coverings
2. Ratramnus reverses framework: Figure is body and blood, while truth is the bread and wine. Presence is not objective.

Ultimately, Radbertus wins and the church endoreses realistic view of presence.
Scholasticism on Eucharist
1. Transubstantiation is Aristotelian physics describing substance (essence) and accidents (what we can perceive by senses, that lead us to understand substance). Accidents of bread/wine remain, but substance (essence) changes into body/blood.
2. Lateran IV (1215) required laity to recieve at least once/year.
3. Aquinas: sacraments as a grace-infusion system and fitting means.
Medieval Eucharistic piety
1. Clerics were only communicants at Latin mass; Laity were mostly illiterate and practiced personal piety during mass
2. Ritual substitutes for non-communicating laity: kissing pax board, eating blessed bread, ocular communion
3. Superstition around host bleeding power (veiling of chalice comes from this)
4. Masses were quantifiable and could propitiate God
Luther on Eucharist
1. Formula Missae is to be the prototype for all masses
2. Deutsche Messe is a vernacular translation for country folk
3. Removes all propitiation, emphasizes institution (Christ's self-offering) and deletes Eucharistic prayer
4. Steps away from transubstantiation as an unnecessary complication (think consubstantiation: still bread/wine but also body/blood)
5. Doesn't mind ceremony (first to elevate chalice) but avoids sacrifice (no breaking of bread).
6. Only reformer to keep objective presence of Christ.
7. Concept of ethical sacrifice, life lived to God.
8. Required receiving 4 times/year
9. No reserve sacrament; apart from use, there is no sacrament
Zwingli on Eucharist
1. Whole service is done at table (not altar), 4 times/yr, with administration in silence
2. Confession in place, no music allowed.
3. Rejects objective presence; this is memorialist (or theology of "real absence")
Bucer on Eucharist
1. Speaks of Lord's Supper rt mass
2. Faith lifts our hearts in the Eucharist (this influences Calvin)
3. There is presence, but not local presence.
4. Bread and wine remain as such, but we attain communion with Christ's body and blood.
5. 1539 The Psalter with Complete Church Practice
Calvin on Eucharist
1. 1542 Form of Church Prayers
2. Eucharist begins with fencing of table
3. Hearts are liften heavenward to presence of Christ, where his body and blood remain
4. Focus of rite is on the action of eating in faith
Herman von Wied
1. Archbishop of Cologne who influenced Cranmer
2. 1545 A Simple and Religious Consultation made 4 points:
a. People make offering on way to chancel for Liturgy of Table
b. Words of institution are sung
c. Communion recieved directly after institution
d. No language of oblation, offering bread and wine to God

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