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Religeous beliefs
most scholars and clergy rejected theories because it contradicted their religeon or what they believed in
Divine right of kings
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Enlightened thinkers believed truth could be discovered through ______or logical thining. ________, they said, was the absence of intolerance, bigotry, or prejudice in one's thinking.
a French military and political leader who had significant impact on modern European history. He was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul of the French Republic, Emperor of the French, King of Italy,
Louis XIV
known as "Louis the Great" and "the Sun King". 1638-1715. King of France. His reign, the longest in French history, was characterized by a magnificent court and the expansion of French influence in Europe. Louis waged three major wars: the Dutch War (1672-78), the War of the Grand Alliance (1688-97), and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14)
Scientific Revolution
a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Committed to individual freedom.He believed that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness. "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."People had lived free and equal individuals but had become civilized. Freedom and equality were destroyed. He believed the only good government was one that was freely formed by the people and guided by the 'general will' of society- a direct democracy. People agree to give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good. Wrote 'The Social Contract' explaining this theory.
people who leave their native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution
Frederik the Great
'I must enlighten my people, cultivate their manners and morals, and make them as happy as human beings can be, or as happy as the means at my disposal permit.He committed himself to reforming Prussia. Granted religious freedoms, reduced censorship, and improved education. He reformed the justice system and abolished the use of torture. He believed serfdom was wrong, but did nothing to end it. Called himself 'the first servant to the state'. He made it his goal to serve and strengthen his country.
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.
A _______ is a written document, that establishes the rules and principles where by an organization or political entity is governed
Bastille Day
National holiday .in Paris, foreign troops came to massacre French citizens. The angry crowd overwhelmed the king's soldiers and the Bastille fell into the control of the citizens.
Thomas Jefferson
The third President of the United States (1801-1809). A member of the second Continental Congress, he drafted the Declaration of Independence (1776). His presidency was marked by the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France (1803) and the Tripolitan War (1801-1805). A political philosopher, educator, and architect, he designed his own estate, Monticello, and buildings for the University of Virginia.
Catherine the Great
Ruled Russia. She ruled with absolute authority, but took steps to modernize and reform Russia. Formed a commission to review Russia's laws. She recommended allowing religious toleration and abolishing torture and capital punishment. her army crushed the rebellion of the serfs. The revolt convinced her that she needed the nobles' support to keep her throne.
Published over 70 books of political essays, philosophy, history, fiction, and drama. He targeted the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government. He was sent to jail twice. After the 2nd time he was exiled to England for 2 years. He found he admired the English government. Later he fled Paris in fear of another jail term.
an 18th-century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.
a member of a political party (1791-93) of moderate republicans whose leaders were deputies from the department of Gironde
The Encyclopedia
made by Diderot and was made to bring together all the most current and enlightened thinking about science, technology, art, government, and more. Published in 1751
Natural rights
the rights that all people are born with-according to John Locke, the rights of life, liberty, and property.
the philosophes referred to nature frequently. To them, what was natural was also good and reasonable. They believed that there were natural laws of economics and politics just as there were natural laws of motion.
the middle class, concerned with property values. (neither nobles nor peasants) Shopkeepers, artisians.
Second Continental Congress
it was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of thirteen British North American colonies that met from May 10, 1775, to March 1, 1781. It was the body which adopted the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.
Wrote the Encyclopedia.
John Locke
Believed people could learn from experience and improve themselves. People have the natural ability to govern their own affairs and look after society.Criticized absolute monarchy and favored the idea of self-government.Believed in 'natural rights'. The purpose of government was to protect these rights.Wrote 'Two Treaties on Government'.One of his strongest "philosophies/beliefs" was that you were born with a blank mind called "tabula rasa". -went well with Rousseau's and Wollstonecraft's ideals.
Enlightened despot
one of the 18th-century European monarchs who were inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of their subjects
Discovered the laws for a planet's motion around the sun. 'Universal gravitation': every object in the universe attracts every other object. Wrote 'Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy'. Described the universe as being a giant clock
a social theory advocating the liberty, rights, or independent action of the individual
Articles of Confederation
the first constitution of the 13 American states adopted in 1781 and replaced in 1789 by the Constitution of the United States.
Estates General
an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France
Stamp Act
an act of the British Parliament for raising revenue in the American Colonies by requiring the use of stamps and stamped paper for official documents, commercial writings, and various articles: it was to go into effect on November 1, 1765, but met with intense opposition and was repealed in March, 1766.
Absolute monarchy
a monarchy that is not limited or restrained by laws or a constitution
Declaration of Independence
a statement of the reasons for the American colonies' break with Britain, approved by the Second Continental Congress in 1776
Swiss-born French revolutionary who founded (1789) L'Ami du peuple, which supported the French Revolution. He was elected to the National Convention in 1792 but was assassinated in the following year by a Girondist.
Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI's wife. She was of the Austrian royal family, making her unpopular in France. She spent much money on gowns, jewels, and gifts.
one of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment.
Human rights
the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law
also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's greatest victories, effectively destroying the Third Coalition against the French Empire. On December 2, 1805 (November 20, Old Style), a French army, commanded by Emperor Napoleon I, decisively defeated a Russian, Austrian army, commanded by Tsar Alexander I
The 3 Estates
First Estate: made up of clergy of Roman Catholic Church, scorned Enlightenment ideas. Second Estate: made up of rich nobles, held highest offices in government, and disagreed about Enlightenment ideas. Third Estate: included bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers, had no power to influence government, embraced Enlightenment ideas
Believed that Britain was the best-governed country at present day. The power was balanced among three groups of officials. He called this 'separation of powers'. SOP: executive, judicial, and legislative Wrote 'On the Spirit of Laws'. He proposed the separation of powers that would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government. Each branch would check the other two.
a radical extreme leftist. Radical republicans
The guillotine
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution
Sans culottes
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
Louis XVI
became king in 1774 and inherited debt from his predecessors. He borrowed greatly to help in the American Revolution. He was indecisive and allowed matters to drift.
Lexington and Concord
First battle of the American Revolution.
Wrote 'Leviathan'. He was convinced humans were selfish and wicked. Without governments, there would be "war of every man against every man". Life would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Believed in 'social contract'. Best government was an absolute monarchy, which could impose order and demand obedience.
not transferable to another or capable of being repudiated
Jacques Louis David
French painter known for his classicism and his commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution. His works include The Oath of the Horatii (17850 and The Death of Marat (1793).
The Boston Massacre
a riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons.

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