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Judaism, Christianity, and the Fall of Rome

Terms

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Pontius Pilate
The Roman governor who sentenced Jesus to crucifixion.
Palestine
The area where Judaism Originated.
Isaac
Abraham's Son. Almost sacrificed by his father.
10 Commandments
The moral standards to living life, especially for Jews.
Torah
Sacred text of the Jews.
Gospels
The first four books of the New Testament written by the apostles.
Peter
disciple of Jesus and leader of the apostles
Constantinople
New Capital of Rome after Rome, the city.
Martyr
Someone who dies for his cause.
Pope
Ultimate Christian Leader.
Synagogue
Jewish house of worship, visited on Saturdays.
Israel
Northern part of the peoples land, taken from them by the Assyrians.
Sarah
Abraham's Wife who bore Isaac.
Theodosius
Rules in 380. Makes Christianity the official religion on Rome.
Abraham
Founding Father of Judaism.
Constantine
Emperor after Diocletian. First Christian emperor. Moves the capital to Byzantium and renames it to Constantinople (modern day Istanbul).
Bar Mitzvah
Jews' coming of age. 13 for boys, 12 for girls.
Apostle
One of the disciples chosen by Jesus.
Masada
Hilltop fortress the Jews used to evade the Romans for some time.
Shabbat
Jews' day of rest, sundown Friday to sundown Saturday.
Virgil
famous Roman poet. Wrote the Annals.
Priests
Leaders of a Church
Diocletian
Rules 284-305. He makes himself absolute ruler of Rome, but for a good cause, and does make it better. Persecuted Christians.
catacombs
underground tunnels where Christians hid in order to pray, etc.
Zealots
Jews that revolted in 66 and were put down by Vespasian.
Kosher
Dietary laws of the Jews.
Jesus of Nazareth
A Jew and a carpenter who was also a philosopher and publicised his beliefs.
Moses
The leader of the Israelites. Received the 10 commandments on mount Sinai.
Passover
A Jewish holiday celebrating the exodus from Egypt.
Disciples
The 12 followers of Jesus
Commodus 180-192
A bad emperor. Starts the decline of the empire.
Monotheism
The belief in one god.
Tacitus
Famous Roman historian who relayed information well.
Saul
First king of Israel.
Attila the Hun
Leader of the Huns, and made them very powerful and feared. They were able to hurt the empire pretty severely.
Cardinals
Leaders over bishops.
Talmud
Commentary on the Torah and law.
heretics
those who were at controversy with the Church.
David
Saul's son, second king of Israel.
Solomon
Third and final king of Israel. Built the temple.
Edict of Milan
Ended persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire 312.
Pompeii
A city in southern Italy that suffered from a volcanic eruption nearby during Titus' Rule.
Ovid
Well known Roman, famous for his collection of myths
Nicene Creed
What the Church's general beliefs are.
Mercenaries
People who are hired and paid to fight in the army.
Yishmael
Abraham's first son from Hagaar. Later sent away by Sarah.
Mary + Joseph
Jesus' Parents
Bishops
Leaders over a number of churches and their priests (Diocese)
Paul of Tauros
A Hebrew who saw a vision of Jesus and spread the religion for the rest of his life.
Rabbi
Leader of Jewish services.
Odoacer
The Leader of the Osrogoths in 476.
Heresy
controversy with the church before the Nicene Creed.
Visgoths, Osrogoths, Vandals
various tribes that fled from the Huns into Roman territory, and started to take it.
Bread + Circus
Shows by the government that had free food and entertainment.
covenant
An agreement between God and the Jews in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return
Inflatration
Prices go up while value goes down.
Judah
Southern part of the peoples land, taken by the Babylonians in 576 B.C. They returned soon after.
Romulus Augustulus
Last Roman Emperor in 476. 14 years old. Sent away by osrogoths' leader.

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