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Great Purges
soviet instrument of terror will be turned to 2 new groups which need to be coordinated: the red army and the communist party. In Stalin's opinion there are reasons to go after these people. Half of the party is eradicated. Goes after high ranking postions as well (leadership).
Holy Alliance
1815 agreement promoted by Czar Alexander I, by which most European powers promised to uphold Christian virtues like peace and charity. Only Britain, Turkey, and the Pope refused to join the Holy Alliance. However, few took the agreement very seriously.
Thomas Malthus
Food production:people production; analyzed population growth and noted the potential for populations to increase rapidly, often faster than the food supply available to them.
Jacobin leader who seized control of National Convention and Committee of Public Safety; later instituted Reign of Terror, targeting those whose philosophies differed from his own
Austrian foreign minister. Vein man. Held position for 40 years. He wants a balance of power (prevent another Napoleon). Mr. Perfect! Austrian foreign minister, was Europe's arch-Reactionary. He was a leading architect of the balance of power developed at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and he called the great powers to various Congresses throughout the coming decade to put down European rebellions wherever they started. In 1848, during a revolution in Vienna, fled the city.
Adam Smith
Founder/father of modern capitalism. His aim was to increase the national wealth of England. Wrote Wealth of Nations. Believed wealth resides in trade, which equates to power, not in physical possession of overseas territory. Formulated laws of supply and demand.
Had the idea of Italian unification; was an Italian patriot, philosopher and politician. His efforts helped bring about the modern Italian state in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers.
Great Rapproachement
the convergence of social and political objectives, between the United States and the British Empire, in the two decades before World War I.
Friedrich Engels
was a German social scientist and philosopher, who developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). Engels also edited the second and third volumes of Das Capital after Marx's death.
Decembrist Revolt
took place in Imperial Russia on December 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession. This uprising took place in the Senate Square in Saint Petersburg.
Congress of Troppau
In 1820, as a reaction to the evident collapse of the government of Naples, Metternich called another meeting called this. Metternich wanted to stop the revolution in Naples from spreading. Holy Alliance decided to deal with each revolution on their own. Napels is first because of Lombardy and Venetia which belong to Austria.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
an international treaty "providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy." It failed in its purpose but was significant for later developments in international law. It was named after the American Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand, who drafted the pact.
Bastille Day
A large armory and state prison in the center of Paris that a mob of sans-culottes sacked on July 14, 1789, giving the masses arms for insurrection. had little practical consequence, but it was an enormous symbolic act against the ancien régime, inspired the revolutionaries, and is still celebrated today as the French holiday.
French aristocrat who tried to recover his class's lost power during the rule of Louis XIV. Wrote The Spirit of Laws. Believed in the concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances. Phrase "No monarch, no nobility; no nobility, no monarch"
Hohenzollern Candidacy
Spain went through several candidates, after revolution in 1868, but finally picked Leopald who was the nephew to the king of Prussia. France would be mad to have Leopald as king. Embassador of Napoleon III gets William to convince Leopald to withdraw candidacy. Telegram edited, French force Nap. to declare war on Prussia before Prussians declare on them.
Joseph II
Ruled Austria. 1st 15 years co-regent with his mother. They argued, cooperatred, and clashed. Was for the lower class. Peasants had an illusion to freedom. Toleration Edict extended considerable religious and full civic rights to Protestants not full rights to Jews. Instituted civil marriage and even opened the door for divorce.
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon ended the current rift between France and the Church by instituting this. Cut a deal with the pope to unify France.
Open Door Notes
early 1890s England controls 80% of all foreign trade with China. Englands wants US to sign a joint declaration to the world that says equal commercial opportunities to everyone in China. Aug 1899 John Hay sends a diplomatic note to all the great powers, including Japan, asking them to agree to equal commercial opportunities (everyone included). Russians say NO. Hay publicly announces that all the great powers have agreed to equal commercial opportunities to China - lie. Boxer Rebellion happens and after John Hay issues a 2nd open door note in 1900 - says he doesn't ask for any acceptance. Everyone will respect China's territorial integrity - no one can grab a piece of China.
Frankfort Assembly
Middle class revolution that hit Germany. German Confederation = null and void. Write a constitution that will unify all of Germany. 600 representatives arrive here in May 1848. 2 possible candidates were Austria or Prussia. Prussia wins! Frederick William IV gets the crown but doesn't want to accept from this.
Richard Cobden
Major figure in getting the Corn Law repealed in England.
a Jew; was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. He was one of the leaders of the Russian October Revolution, second only to Lenin. During the early days of the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and People's Commissar of War.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
in July 1790, the French Catholic Church itself fell into a decree by the National Assembly that established a national church system with elected clergy. The country was divided into eighty-three departments, each of which was governed by an elected official and represented by an elected bishop. The voting for these positions was open to anyone who met certain relatively lenient criteria, such as property ownership.
Elder, brilliant scholar; take intellectual knowledge and military skills and combine both for the good of Prussia and crucial moment in his country's history. one of the great strategists of the latter half of the 1800s.
Frederick the Great (Prussia)
king of Prussia in the middle stages of the eighteenth century, and advanced Prussian fortunes to the point where they became the foremost power in Europe. Allied with Britain during the Seven Years War, Frederick the Great was later generous to the United States in forging a trade alliance.
John Locke
Englishman. Wrote Of Civil Government: Two Treatises. Argued men have a sense of right and wrong as well as certain natural or inalienable rights - life, liberty, and property. Rejected the concept of original sin. Believed that his mind was like a blank tablet, responsibility of educator to write on tablet.
Zabern Affair
Power or the abuse of power by the German army on the eve of WWI. Alsace Lorraine was French and now is German. Want to make sure French are good Germans. Army abuses power, kills French traditions, customs, will not let anyone leave A.L. or visit into A.L. October 28, 1913 content is leaked from lecture given to new recruits and a local newspaper publishes what the lieutenant said. People write William II and army writes his as well; Will. believes soldiers.
Dreyfus Affair
was a political scandal which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. It involved the conviction for treason in November 1894 of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young French artillery officer of Jewish background who was in advanced training with the Army's General Staff. Alfred Dreyfus was sentenced to life imprisonment, which he began to serve in solitary confinement on Devil's Island in French Guiana. Two years later, in 1896, the real culprit was brought to light and identified: a French Army major named Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy. However, French high-level military officials dismissed or ignored this new evidence. French military counter-intelligence officers fabricated false documents designed to secure Dreyfus' conviction as a spy for Germany. They were all eventually exposed, in large part due to a resounding public intervention by writer Emile Zola. The case had to be re-opened, and Dreyfus was brought back from Guiana in 1899 to be tried again.
David Hume
Believed invaildate miracles (lower class sees miracles), religion is nothing but the product of man's fears, if God hasn't spoken to you then he either doesn't exist or doesn't care. Wanted to expose the people of the church that they were being taugth myths and let them flee. Do away with or destroy the institutional church.
George Stephenson
was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public railway line in the world to use steam locomotives and is known as the "Father of Railways." The Rocket.
Austria's defeat made compromise manditory between the Germans and the Magyars. Had to reach political settlement.
Article 231
Treaty of Versailles (1919); is commonly known as the "Guilt Clause" or the "War Guilt Clause", in which Germany was forced to take complete responsibility for starting World War I. The United Kingdom and France played the primary role in the article, while the United States played a lesser role, mostly due to President Woodrow Wilson's principle of "peace without victory."
Admiral is the architect of the fleet. He has a theory: whole reason for building fleet is to force England to be their friend by building a navy.
"cultural struggle" - refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted by Bismarck. Pope will break diplomatic relations with Prussia. Tells churches not to support the government. Other religions come to the Roman Catholic defense. In the end Bismarck has to back down.
Cossack soldier who ignited a violent and bloody revolt of the serfs. The revolt put an end to any thoughts Catherine the Great of Prussia had about serfdom.
William Howard Russell
Frist civilan war correspondent; English Times published in London from Constantinova, published 48-72 hours after he wrote it. Points out oversights of the British.
Lord Byron
was a British poet and a leading figure in Romanticism. House of the Lords, English poet. Born club footed yet become great athlete. Most famous work was Don Juan.
George Whitefield
A dynamic minister during the Great Awakening, relied on dramatics to scare people into believing in God. Very powerful preacher (crowds over 20,000), calvinist
was a failure; battle begins 21 Feb 1916 the attack is proceeded by a 12 ½ hour canon bombardment; lines disappear. Germans attack they hit a French brick wall, they can't break through. This is not too far away from the German authority. If Germans can break through this they get behind the French, then they win the war. Body count is what is important. By mid July they decide to break off the attack. French decide we are winning, so the French counter attack. French run into a German wall until mid of Dec. Battle lasted 10 months
ended the current rift between France and the Church by instituting here which is a village near Brussels. On June 18 1815, the British, aided by the Prussians, defeated Napoleon for the last time. Their victory signaled the end of a more-than-ten- year period filled with battles largely instigated by Napoleon. Napoleon's Hundred Days were rapidly coming to an end.
is a Nazi term for the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. One goal of this policy was to eliminate individualism by forcing everybody to adhere to a specific doctrine and way of thinking and to control as many aspects of life as possible using an invasive police force.

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