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social studies chapter 2

Terms

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Sunna
the name given to customs based on Mu.'s words and deeds
oases
green areas fed by underground water
Kaaba
a low, squared building surrounded by statues of gods and goddesses
Suleiman I
ruled in the 1500's. he was the sultan of the Ottomans. he built many schools and Mosques. he brought Ottoman Armies North into Europe. he thretened the capital of Vienna. Ottomins called him Suleiman the Magnificant. After his rule the Ottoman Empire began to weaken. the empire calapsed at the end of world war I
Islamic State
A government that uses its political power to uphold islam. All muslums must place loyalty to the Islamic state above loyalty to their tribe
Irrigation
irrigation was used to bring water to peoples crops.
Minarets
a tower from which a crier calls believers to pray five times a day
polytheism
the belief that there is more than one god
Ottoman rule of different peoples
the Ottoman ruled many different people including: Turks, Arabs, Greeks, Albanians, Armenians, and Slavs. they all practiced different religeons. most Muslim, yet some christion and jew
crier
an announcer, or someone who calls from the minarets for people to pray five times a day.
Caliph
successors to the messanger of god
Muslim Society
Muslim people were divided into groups based on power and wealth. government leaders, landowners, traders. than under them were artisans, farmers, and workers, last were slaves
Astrolabe
Muslim perfection with science. was perfected by Muslim scientists who studied the heavens. It was also used to measure the size and distance around the earth.
Cordoba
Muslims created the city of Cordoba which is the center of politics and culture in spain
Muhammad
born in Mekka, raised by uncle, bacame a merchant, married and had children, he beleived that people should honor there families, be fair in bussiness, and help the poor. Visited by Gabriel in ad 610 and told to be islam, soon he caimed to be the prophet
Agra
where the Taj Mahal is located. It is in India
Shiites
another version of Muslim thet beleives that the Ummayad Caliphs Damascus had no right to rue. there are less than them than the sunni's
Pigrams
people who travel to a holy place, go to Makka
Maimonides
a jewish scholar organized a collection of jewish oral law
Persia
Muslim armies began the conquest of Persia, defeated the Persian army and captured Persian Capital. They beat another persian army in central persia. AD 651, the Persian king was killed and the former kingdom of Persia came under the rule of Caliph.
sheikh
the head of a arabic tribe whos members were loyal to one another
Hadith
a tradition or the collection of traditions of Muhammad.
Akbar
The greatest Mogul ruler. He brought peace to the part of india that he ruled by treating all the people fairly. most of his empire was hindu and he allowed the peope to practice both Hindu or Islam. Both hindus and Muslims served in Akbars government.
Mosques
Muslim houses of worship. they were also schools, courts and centers of learning
Abu Bakr
Mu.'s father-in-law. he put down a rebellion by many arabs who didnt know who to follow after Mu.'s death. he began the conquest of Syria but died in AD 634
Jizya
a poll tax formerly paid by the Muslims
people of the book
what Muslims called Christians and Jews which means that they too only believe in one god.
Moguls
they created another Muslim Empire in India. They were muslim Warriors who came from the mountains north of india. They used guns, cannons, elephants, and horses to conquer territory. in 1526 they made the city of Delhi which was the center of their empire.
Ibn Khaldun
A Muslim Historian who wrote that all civilizations, rise and fall. He was also one of the first historians to study the affect of geography and climate on people.
Madinah
the rename of Yathrib after Mu. and his followers came. It means " the city of prophit"
Allah
means god in islam and is the islamic god
Arab
someone who spoke arabic
bedouins
people who were desert hereders, and to get water they whent from oasis to oasis
Arabic Numerals
the idea was taken by the Muslim from Hindu scholars. 0-9 are today known as Arabic numerals
Abbasids
the dynasty that came after the Ummayads. The ummayad lost power in AD 759 because they upset mant muslims especially in Persia. Persian Muslims thought that Arab Muslims got better treatment
Omar Khayyam
a Persian poet who wrote parts of the Rubaiyat
Baghdad
Baghdad was the new capital for the Abbasids. It was a good place for trade since many traders used the euphrates and tigris river that it was between were used to ship goods north and south.
Osman
the ruler of the turks who began to build a new empire in the corner of Asia Minor. these turks became known as the Ottoman Turks
Istanbul
what the Byznatine empires name was changed to by the Ottoman Turks. they made it the center of theit empire
Al-Razi
one of the best known Muslim Chemists. He lived from AD 865-925. he invented a system that categorized substances such as animal, vegetable, or mineral. He also wrote books for doctors to help them identify diseases.
Seljuk Turks
a new people, of central Asia, began to move south into the Arab Empire, the Abbasids were losing control. the seljuk turks were nomads and great worriors. At first the abasids hired them to be souldiers but then the sj's decided to takee control for themselves. they took over much of what is today Iran and Turkey. and then they took over baghdad. they ruled the government and the army.
Janissaries
a new army of soldiers created by the sutans. they were slaves who were conquered from european lands. they were usually christian. they became Muslim who were trained in warfare and were only loyal to sultans. they helped the sultan maintain power over conquered people who might rebel.
Credit
honor given for some action
Monotheism
the belief that there is only one god: Muslums, Jews, Christians
Makka/Mecca
the largest and richest town of trade. Crossroads to merchants and religeous site
Sufis
people who spent most of their time praying and teaching Islam. they one many followers throughout the Arab Empire
Hijrah
the rename of the journey of Mu. and followers to Yathrib "braking off relationships"
Muslim trade goods
sugar, rice, lemon, spinach, oranges, safron, plums, and cotton, and coins. Arabic bacame the language of trade and government
Indonesia
where there is more islams than any other nation in the world
Sunni
the Sunni is a version of Muslim, that accepted the ummayad dynasty as rightful Caiphs, they outnumber the shiites
Sultan
what the Seljuk leader called himself
5 Pillars of Islam
1.only one god, Mu. is prophet 2. pray five times a day facing Mekkah 3.Muslims must give to the poor 4.they must not eat from dawn to dusk during the holiday of Ramadan 5. they must visit Makkah at least once in their life
Timbuktu
a learning center of Muslim learning
Asian trade goods
spices, cloth, glass, steel, and carpets. on the way back they brought rubies, silk, ivory, god and slaves.
Granada
a place in Spain where the most famous Muslim Palace, the Alhambra which was buit in the 1300's
mamun
the Abbasid caliph
Algebra
a type of math still taught in school today.
Ummayad
Ummayad Caliphs ruled from AD 661-AD 750, Damascus in Syria was their capital
Islam
"surrendering the will of Allah", the god is Allah
house of wisdom
founded by Mamun, in Baghdad. There christion, Jewich, and Muslim Scholars would exchange ideas and rewrite greek, persian, and Indian works in Arabic
Quran
the holy book of Islam
Damascus
the chosen city by the umayyad Caliphs in Syria to be their capital. they ruled from ad 661 to ad 750
Bazaar
a marketplace. they were made up of stalls and shops
1st 4 caliphs
Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali
The well of life
a writing by a jew named ben gabirol
Muslums
the people that worshiped Allah and that beleive in islam
Khyber pass
where the moguls went through to come from the mountains north of india to central india
Banking
Muslim merchants kept records of their business deals and the money that they made. banking was a new business
Ibn Sina
A Persian doctor that showed how diseases spread from one person to another.
Taj Mahal
located in Agra, India. Built by the Mogul ruler Shah Jahan built it as a tomb for his wife after she dies in 1629. It is made of marble and stone.
Gabriel
the angel that visited Mu. and tried to get him to be Muslum
caravans
a group of traveling merchants and animals
Egypt
The Muslims defeated a Byzantine army that was defending Egypt and in AD 642 Egypt surrendered
Viziers
someone who worked as a government official and was given more responcibility by the sultans when the empire started to grow. over time, they grew great poitical power, and soon were even more powerful than the sultans

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