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NRES 211


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Fitness is defined as: How well an individual ____ and ____.
survives reproduces
Evolution is the ____ change in ____ of a species from generation to generation.
genetic characteristics
Provide 2 examples from lecture in which humans have altered the present day environment.
bison slaughtering slash and burn agriculture
Evolution is the ____ chance in ____ of a species from generation to generation.
genetic environmetal
T or F. The Lacy Act was passed to protect flowers from slash and burn agriculture.
Variation in a population is a result of ____ and ____ influences.
genetic environmental
As clutch size of the Great Tit increased, weight of individual chicks ____ and survirorship 3 months after fledglings ____.
decreased decreased
The biological species concept is defined as: A group of interbreeding individuals that is ____ from other groups, can freely mate and produce ____ offspring.
reproductively isolated viable
What is the \"raw material\" needed from speciation and evolution?
List 2 of the 6 pre-zygotic isolating mechanism.
geographic ecological behavioral temporal mechanical gamete
What 2 types of species confound the biological species concept?
asexual fossil species
Ecology can be categorized into 4 different levels of organization, name them:
physiological population community ecosystem
Name two traits of how the Mirriam\'s kangaroo rat has adapted to living the desert environment.
developed lung efficient water conservation through their kidney by excreting a paste rather than liquid urine.
The activities and relationships of an organism constrained by physical and biological processes in called an organisms ____.
What is the difference between habitat and range?
Habitat - An actual place; you can see it and go to it. Range - describes the map location where you can find a species.
Name 2 of the 3 characteristics that ecologists use to describe a population?
population size sex ratio dispersion
A ____ curve shows how the mortality rate of a population changes with the age of the individuals.
____ use value is the value of products that are utilized directly by people that are never bought or sold.
In classical economic theory, the ____ is a force which is considered to be the sum total of all individual peoples needs or wants.
T or F. Resource partitioning is when two speccies over use their resource to the detriment of the other. Thus, both species die.
T or F. All of the earth\'s biodiversity is evenly spread from the equator to the polar regions.
T or F. All major religions of the world contain lines of thought that describe a human\'s roles to protect nature and/or other forms of life.
T or F. All of the earth\'s biodiversity can be defined according to latitudinal gradients from the equator.
T or F. Restoration ecology is NOT simply rehabilitating, revegetating, or reclaiming a landscape.
T or F. Restoration ecology is the emerging field in ecology with an increase in scientific citations over time.
T or F. Restoration ecology has marked contrast with Conservation Ecology. Restoration ecology up until now has mostly focused on plant restoration whereas Conservation Ecology has focused on conserving animals.
What is the difference between climate change and climate warming?
Change is in either direction whereas warming is just increasing temperatures.
What is the importance of CO2 to our atmosphere and how does it contribute to climate change?
CO2 is an important GHG. It traps heat and increases temperatures.
Name 1 challenge discussed in class that restoration ecologists face today and explain your answer.
What to restore to in the past, costs, likelihood of success, will the target community be reached, etc.
What is the cyrosphere? Name 2 of the components.
The term refers collectively to the portions of the Earth where water is in solid form. It includes sea ice, rive/lake ice, snow cover, permafrost, glaciers, and ice sheets.
What is the 6th mass extinction?
The current rate of biodiversity loss and believe our current population and our practices are creating it.
What is an externality as it related to economic theory?
Negative externality is a hidden cost to the economy that is shared by everyone.
____ is the proportion or percentage of incoming solar radiation reflected from a surface.
What is the concern if the Earth\'s frozen environments are store more in the water phase?
Increase river discharge in the arctic zones that increase the freshwater introduces into the ocean, altering ocean circulation.
What has happened to the distribution of Sea Ice in the last 3 decades?
Loss of habitat for organisms, change in ocean circulation patterns, etc
Define thermohaline circulation.
The part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
What is the thermocline?
Zone of rapidly changing temperature in the ocean.
It rains a lot in Brazil because the strong ____ at the equator heats up the air which pulls in a ton of gases water. This hot, water-laden air then rises and loses ____ expanding and cooling releasing less moisture, so you get condensation, the formation
sunlight pressure clouds
An interaction where individuals one one species suffer reduced fitness as a result of an interaction with individuals of another species is called ____.
Paramecium species seem to do well when they are placed in separate beakers. However when you place two species in the same beaker there is one species that seems to do better than the other species. Ecologists name for this phenomenon is ____.
competitive exclusion
____ is when both individuals of two species benefit through their interaction. An example of this is wrasse and a shark.
The Duck Stamp Act was initiated by the request of the ____ community. In the first year over 635,000 stamps were sold showing the lobbying force of this community. Proceeds went to protect ____ habitats critical for breeding, migration, and stopovers.
hunting wetlands
T or F. The Earth essentially receives a similar amount of energy all the time. However, because the Earth is round, more solar energy hits the equator than the poles.
T or F. The Pleistocene overkill suggests that early humans arriving in N. America during the last ice age significantly impacted wildlife populations through hunting and other practices.
T or F. The Endangered Species Act is uniquely in the history of environmental legislation in North American because it does not allow for public participation but creates a list of species that are declining in population.
T or F. An improvement to the Weeks-McClean Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act between the US and Britain and then Mexico was designed to protect nongame and game birds.
Name 3 things that occurred during the Era of Protection.
Lacey Act Creation of Yosemite National Park Creation of Nonprofits to protect natural resources.
The 3 types of survival curves are...
Type I Type II Type III
The 3 ecosystems with the largest biodiversity are...
bottom of the ocean tropical rain forests corals reefs
Name 2 things that the Neoclassical Economic world view suggests
incorporated natural capital into an economic growth model believes that if natural capital is exhausted then human capital can make up the difference there is no limit to growth
Name 2 of the 3 resources that typically lead to competition between species.
space food mating
What is a survival curve and why is it important to understand in conserving populations?
Survivorship curves shows us how the mortality rate of a population changes with the age of individuals. The curves are important because they can tell us how a population may change in the future based on the mortality of a certain age group in a population.
What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
Primary succession happens when the process starts from an absolute blank slate; a location where there is no life at all. Secondary succession is one that does not start bare but with a disturbance.
Define biodiversity and the two types discussed in class. As a conservation biologist when would you want to differentiate between these two types of biodiversity and why?
Biodiversity - the wealth of life on earth, the genes they contain and the intricate ecosystems they help build Alpha biodiversity - the simplest of the measurements as it is just the number of species found in a local community. Gama biodiversity - the number of species across multiple communities. It can tell you what areas to protect.
The valuation of resources can be described in 5 ways. Name two of these ways and define them.
Direct Economic benefit - goods that directly benefit human use today that can be consumptive or productive
The value of a resource into the future is called an indirect economic value. Name one of these resources and why we value it as a future option.
Taxol plant used to cure cancer
What is the tragedy of the commons? Provide a modern example of this philosophy.
A conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good
An amendment to the Endangered Species Act in 1982 provided for Habitat Conservation Plans. What is a Habitat Conservation Plan? List some of the positives and negatives associated with these plans.
HCPs are agreements between the federal government and primate landowners that allow a landowner to destroy or alter the critical habitat of an endangered species in exchange for protecting similar or better habitat elsewhere, or by contributing to a program to restore degraded habitat. They require long-term decisions, most are covered by a \"Safe Harbor\" policy, and they\'re very expensive and time-consuming
What is a Population Viability Analysis (PVA)?
Statistical method used to assess extinction. Used to determine if a species can persist in the environment. They can also write about a minimum viable population.
Name 1 way a species has altered the Lake Tahoe ecosystem and why agencies are worried about the introduction of invasive species in the lake.
Lake trout, crayfish, Mysid shrimp, bass, water milfoil They will change the lake\'s clarty and/or ecology
Name 2 wildlife discussed in class whose habitat is in decline due to climate change.
Polar bears, ring seals, walrus, migratory birds
What ist he name of the policy discussed in class that he Center for Biological Diversity has utilized to list some of these animals?
Endangered Species Act
What field technique discussed in class is used by scientist to determine the movement and migrations of large mammals?
Radio/satellite tagging/tracking
We have discussed the impacts of climate alterations on wildlife, however there is another more direct impact that is predicted to lead to the decline of native biodiversity by 2050 in the Arctic. What is the cause of this direct impact?
Oil and gas development
Some people think Dr. Sergey Zimov is a mad Russian scientist. Why? What is he proposing in the Arctic and why is it important?
He proposes to reintroduces mega wildlife back into the landscape in hopes to change the landscape vegetation from willows to grasses. This will insulate the ground and keep it from melting due to increase warmer temperatures.
What is the secondary vector for malaria?
Humans or mammals
Explain 2 of 3 ways that climate change increases the threat of malaria.
1. Increase human exposure to infected mosquitoes 2. expands malaria distribution by elevation and latitude 3. extreme weather events create conditions for outbreaks
What is the secondary host for West Nile Virus?
Expalin one CCF-II scenario of climate change of West Nile Virus.
Reduction of bird diversity due to death from widespread WNV
The distribution and/or spread of Lyme disease is dictated by what factors?
The distribution of deer ticks, which is controlled by climate
T or F. Climate chance is increasing both the frequency and intensity of weather-related disasters.
T or F. Revegetation and rehabilitation are considered important processes in restoration.
T or F. They cryosphere refers collectively to the portions of the Earth where water is in liquid form and very warm.
T or F. CO2 and temperature are linked. When CO2 concentrations have increased in the earth\'s atomosphere in the past, temperature has increased.
T or F. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased dramatically in the past 100 years.
Define restoration ecology.
The process of intentionally altering a location in order to establish an historic ecosystems, including the original structure, diversity, etc.
Describe and define 2 of the 3 actions that are not considered to be restoration actions.
Revegetation - addition of plants back into the landscape that is disturbed. Rehabilitation - imporving a landscape by adding vegetation, etc. Reclamation - taking degraded land and putting it to new use
What are some challenges to establishing a restoration project?
How do we know what to restore to, How far in the past...
The greenhouse effect is a natural occurrence which has increased due to human influences. What is it?
GHG\'s trap the sun\'s energy that is reflected and radiated from the Earth giving us a warm climate to live in. It is a natural process. They can also say taht humans have increased GHG\'s causing a great effect
What is albedo? Qualitatively, how does albedo change with different states of water?
Albedo is the percent radiation reflected from an object. Albedo is greater with snow, less on ice, and little in ocean water.
What Act in the US is used to list species as threatened or endangered? Explain the importance of the listing of the polar bear under this Act. Be specific on how it has transformed climate policy in the US.
Endangered Species Act. By listing the polar bear, it forces the US government and other organizations to consider climate change in the framework of US policies since there are no specific policies to date that address climate change.

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