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Neoplastic Disorders


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history and physical
first step in diagnostic process, wt loss, weakness, fatigue, CNS alterations, pain, hematologic and metabolic alterations, early stages often have non specific complaints
M phase
mitosis(cell division) occurs; lasts from minutes to few hours
named according to tissue from which it arises
no evidence of disease and same life expectancy as a person who never had CA
lymph vessels
Secondary prevention
early detection; self exams; regular check ups
Predisposing Factors
Age, geographic location, occupation, heredity, diet, stress, precancerous lesions
Stages of Carcinogensis
Initiation, Promotion, Progression
Benign neoplasm
usually harmless; doesn't spread or invade other tissue
Antigen skin testing
assess immune system
Staging and Grading tumors
define tumor extent by: prinary tumor charactoristics, lymph node involvement, evidence of metastasis
Primary prevention
education of risk factors; behavior/dietary modification
Psychosocial impact
anxiety and depression most common
DNA that can transform normal cells into malignant cells; cervical CA
genetically identical cells assume same function ie:muscle cell
abnormal new growth, or formation of tissue that serves no useful purpose and may harm host organism
G-2 phase
biochemical processes occur in preparation for mitosis; lasts few hours
blood vessels
Financial impact
expensive; may discontinue medical coverage
>65; some occur at certain age such as early adulthood or childhood
TNM system
T: tumor, primary tumor characteristics(size) T0-Tis (capsulated) - T4; N= nodes: lymph node involvement; N0-N3, M= metastasis: evidence of met, M0-M1
substances that when introduced into the cell causes changes in the structure and function of the cell that lead to CA, radiation, viruses, chemical agents
Stage 1 of Metastasis
invasion into surrounding tissue and penetration of blood or lymph vessels (breast CA)
Immunity theory
Cancer cells continually form within the body, immune system destroys, breakdown of immune system allows cancer cells to reproduce, cancer risk 80 times greater in transplantation clients, AIDS clients have increased incidence of CA
G-0 phase
resting phase until enviornmental stimulus triggers G-1 phase
Chemical agents
tobacco, workplace exposure
study of the disitribution and determinants of diseases and health problems in specific populations
Stage 2 of metastasis
spread via lymph, blood or direct expansion
Relative survival rate
5 yr survival marker; decreased probability that condition will recur or spread
blood studies
tumor markers such as PSA or CEA
morphologic and phenotypic changes in cells associated with increased malignant behavior leading to invasion of surrounding tissue and metastasis to distant body parts
Tumor grading
I: well differentiated; minimal deviatin from normal cells, II, III, IV: poorly differentiated; most aberrant( abnormal) when compared to normal cells
Ecomonmy impact
technology expensive; loss of productivity
Cell cycle impoartance
slow cell cycle: longer for tumor ID, short cell cycle: more sensitive to chemo
outlines blood supply of tumor and surrounding structures
Malignant neoplasm
harmful tumor, capable of spread and invasion of other tissues far removed from the site of orgin
Normal Cell Cycle
carefully controlled; as cell dies, new one produced, no overproduction; 2 daughter cells
Diagnosis for CA
client afraid and anxious, must be honest, must be able to discuss dx, tx, care, expected outcomes
Radioisotope scans
track radioisotope such as thryroid, bone, brain, liver, lung, spleen, inject with isotope
more than 80% from natural sources
S phase
DNA and chromosome protein synthesis; lasts 6-8 hrs
Geographic location
environmental factors such as diet, sun exposure
Incidence rate
number of new cases occuring in a given population at risk during a specific time
second factor (tobacco, alcohol, dietary fat) acts on initiated cell causing changes in DNA
Diagnostic tests
xray, radioisotope scans, CT(w/contrast), mammography, angiography, blood studies, cytologic exam, biopsy, ultrasound, direct visualization, MRI, antigen skin testing
Chronic stress may induce immunologic changes
Characteristics of normal cells
cell cycle, differentiation, contact inhibition
uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
gland tissue
Cell cycle
G-0 phase, G-1 phase, S phase, G-2 phase, M phase
nerve tissue
Stage 3 of metastasis
establishment and growth at secondary site ex) colon CA to brain tumor
contact with specific carcinogens such as asbestos with lung CA
Physical impact
disfigurement; sequelae of tx
DNA damaged by chemical, physical, biologic agents; may not immediately lead to CA, but cells more susceptable to progress to malignancy
G-1 phase
RNA and protein synthesis; time frame varies
Contact inhibition
contact with another cell allows growth in a single layer until edge is reached
Mortality rate
number of deaths that occur in population at risk in a specific period

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