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Plate Tectonics review

Terms

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index fossil
a fossil that occured for a short time in history
mantle
thickest layer of the Earth, part liquid part solid where convection currents are found
Mid Atlantic Ridge
divergent boundary in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
fossils
when living things die and are burried in sediment
absolute age
the exact age of something
Harry Hess
credited with the theory of Plate Tectonics
earths pressure
increases with depth
extrusion
when igneous rock covers the top of a body of older rock
magnetic field
created from the opposite spinning of the inner and outer core
age of igneous and metamorphic rocks
determined by absolute dating
inner core elements
iron and nickel
fault
a break in the earths crust that moves rocks
earths temperature
increases with depth
unconformity
a gap in the rock record, where younger rock touches much older rock
inner core
very dense solid spinning layer of the Earth
Theory of Plate Tectonics
theory that the crust is made of plates that move due to convection currents
Law of Superposition
in a sequence of sedimentary rocks, the oldest rocks are on the bottom and the younger rocks are on the top
subduction zone
the more dense plate us pulled into the mantle under the less dense plate
rift valley
formed when two plates pull apart and land falls downard
transform boundary
when two plates grind past each other
Law of Original Horizontality
in a sequence of sedimentary rocks, layers of rock were originally formed lying horizontally
mountain range
formed at a continental-continental convergent boundary
oceanic crust
earths crust located under the ocean
sea floor spreading
when two oceanic plates pull apart, magma rises and new crust is formed
radioactive dating
measures the amount of radioactive material in a rock to determine its absolute age
sedimentary rock
rock formed from tiny pieces of other rocks or shells that have been compacted together
crust
outer layer of the Earth, the thinnest layer
outer core elements
iron and nickel
convection currents
circular movement of a substance due to changes in temperature and density
trench
depression formed at a subduction zone
Theory of Continental Drift
Theory that continents move due to centrifical force
convergent boundary
when two plates come together
island arc
a chain of volcanic islands formed at an ocean-ocean convergent boundar
crust minerals
quartz and feldspar
lithosphere
another name for the crust
mountain range
form at continental-continental convergent boundaries
volcanic arc
a chain of volcanic mountains formed at an ocean-continental convergent boundary
continental crust
earths crust made of land
relative age
how old two or more things are compared to each other
mantle elements
iron and magnesium
crust elements
oxygen and silicon
age of sedimentary rocks
determined by relative dating
pangea
large supercontinent that existed 250 million years ago
Alfred Wegener
credited with the theory of Continental Drift
plates
large pieces of earths crust that move due to convection currents
outer core
very dense liquid spinning layer of the Earth
intrusion
when igneous rock pushes into a body of older rock
aesthenosphere
another name for them mantle
divergent boundary
when two plates pull apart

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