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REVOLUTIONS- Cowie v Todd v Brinton


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Todd Definition- coup d'etats or putsch
is a seizure of power by a relatively small group of people, often involving sections of the military
-the aim of this event is to replace one group of rulers with another with fundamental social/economic features left intact
Todd Definition- civil war
like a coup, it often starts with a political struggle for power between diff groups which want to rule- intense struggle spills into bitter violence of civil war
-like coup, main aim to change a set of political rulers to secure power for themselves
Todd Definition- revolt/rebellion
can be large-scale, but not normally revolutionary-usually mass social upheavals aim to secure a few specific reforms to imporve conditions
Todd Definition- revolution
when people attempt to completely transform the social, economic, political and ideological features of their society
-it often occurs when people see the status quo as corrupt and unreformable and want to sweep it away and replace it
According to Todd, when do revolutions occur?
When situations are beginning to improve rather than when poverty and oppression are most severe
-why reformists more determined to fight for reforms b/c poor conditions UNDERMINES and DEMORALIZES masses = reaction/counterrevolution
-if poverty and oppression were sufficient recipe for rev, human history would be in CONTINUOUS REVOLUTION
Todd- the role of the young in revolutions
-hope and idealism
-ready to risk their lives for an ideal
Todd- the role of marginalized segments of society, women and poor
-the more prolonged/deeply rooted the rev, the more they play a role
Todd- the "Festival of the Oppressed"
-another name for total revolution- change is possible and imminent
Todd- revolution is linked to evolution because
-revolution just speeds up econ/soc/pol evolutionary processes
-if rev goes TOO FAST, then the revolution is doomed to failure ie. ultimate failure of communist revolution in russia/USSR by 1991
Todd- types of revolutions
mass mobilizations
-all revolutions generally have this, sometimes led by leaders/parties, other times spontaneous
-cannot transform society without ACTIVE support of key sections of pop
-the role of violence/counter revolution
-most involve violence, but usually counter rev is more violent
Todd- political revolution
-occurs when new econ and social developments have already begun to transform society and existing political rulers are holding back further changes
-assumes that once political changes have occured, econ/soc will be quick
-KEY is there is NO intention to have a major TRANSFERENCE of wealth and property from 1 group to another

role of economic power/violence:
-those who often want the rev ALREADY HAVE econ power
-consequently, often BLOODLESS ie begin of Fr Rev/1848 Rev
Todd- social revolution
-aim to transfer econ assets and power, and social/pol status and privileges from one social group to another
-role of violence= MORE VIOLENT elites have MORE AT STAKE
-occur when part econ and social system seen to have stagnated or being incapable of any further progressive development (hence, only a FUNDAMENTAL CHANGE in the social system can help!)
Todd- two main types of revolutions?
-political and social
Todd- how many revolutionary STAGES are there?
Todd- what is the first stage of revolution?
-often in direction desired by revolutionaries
-crowds support

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