This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

CogPsych Chap 5-8


undefined, object
copy deck
the means by which we retain and draw on our past experiences to use that information in the present
producing a fact, a word, or other item from memory
selecting or otherwise identifying an item as being one that you learned previously
explicit memory
participants engage in conscious recollection
implicit memory
using information but are not consciously aware that we are doing so
sensory store
capable of storing relatively limited amounts of information for very brief periods
short-term store
capable of storing information for somewhat longer periods but also of relatively limited capacity
long-term store
large cpacity, capable of storing information for very long periods, perhaps even indefinitely
hypothetical constructs
concepts that are not themselves directly measurable or observable but that serve as mental models for understanding how a psychological phenomenon works
iconic store
a discrete visual sensory register that holds information for very short periods
working memory
holds only the most recently activated, or conscious, portion of long-term memory, and it moves these activated elements into and out of brief, temporary memory storage
visuospatial sketchpad
briefly holds some visual images
phonological loop
briefly holds inner speech for verbal comprehension and for acoustic rehearsal
central executive
both coordinates attentional activities and governs responses
episodic buffer
a limited capacity system that is capable of binding information from the subsidiary systems and from long-term memory into a unitary episodic representation.
semantic memory
stores general world knowledge
episodic memory
stores personally experienced events or episodes
a node that activates a connected node
a process of producting retrieval of memories that would have seem to have been forgotten
retrograde amnesia
can occur fairly commonly when someone sustains a concussion
infantile amnesia
the inability to recall events that happened when we were very young
anterograde amnesia
the inability to remember events that occur after a traumatic event
Alzheimer's disease
a disease of older adults that causes dementia as well as progressive memory loss
someone who demonstrates extraordinarily keen memory ability, usually based on using special techniques for memory enhancement
a severe loss of explicit memory
levels-of-processing framework
postulates that memory does no comprise three or even any specific number of separate stores but rather varies along a continuous dimension in terms of detph of encoding
how you transform a physical, sensory input into a kind of representation that can be placed into memory
how you retain endcoded information in memory
how you gain access to information stored in memory
the process of integrating new information into stored information
metamemory strategies
involve reflecting on our own memory processes with a view to improving our memory
our ability to think about and control our own processes of thought and ways of enhancing our thinking
the repeated recitation of an item
distributed practice
learning in which various sessions are spaced over time
massed practice
learning in which sessions are crammed together in a very short space of time
mnemonic devices
specific techniques to help you memorize lists of words
the presence of information stored in long-term memory
the degree to which we can gain access to the available information
occurs when competing information causes us to forget something
occurs when simply the passage of time causes us to forget
interference theory
refers to the view that forgetting occurs because recall of certain words interferes with recall of other words
retroactive interference
is caused by activity occuring after we learn something but before we are asked to recall that thing
proactive interference
occurs when the interfering material occurs before, rather than after, learning of the to be remembered material
recency effect
refers to superior recall of words at and near the end of a list
primacy effect
refers to superior recall of words at and near the beginning of a list
decay theory
asserts that information is forgotten because of the gradual disapperance, rather than displacement, of the memory trace
involving the use of various strategies
prior experience affects how we recall things and what we actually recall from memory
autobiographical memory
refers to memory of an individual's history
flashbulb memory
memory of an event so powerful that the person remembers the event as vividly as if it were indelibly preserved on film
encoding specificty
what is recalled depends on what is encoded
knowledge representation
the form for what you know in your mind about things, ideas, events, and so on that exist outside your mind
declaritive knowledge
knowledge of facts that can be stated
procedural knowledge
knowledge of procedures that can be implemented
symbolic representation
meaning the relationship between the word and what it represents is simply arbitrary
the mental representation of things that are not currently being sensed by the sense organs
functional-equivalence- hypothesis
although visual imagery is not identical to visual perception, it is functionally equivalent to it
mental rotation
involves rotationally transforming an object's visual mental image
dual-code theory
suggesting that knowledge is represented both in images and in symbols
propositional theory
suggesting that knowledge is represented only in underlying propositions, not in the form of images of or words and other symbols
mental models
knowledge structures that individuals construct to understand and explain their experiences
cognitive maps
internal representations of our physical environment, particularly centering on spatial relationships
analogue codes
a form of knowledge representation that preserves the main perceptual features of whatever is being represented for the physical stimuli we observe in our environment

Deck Info