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Psych Test 1-Chapter 1&2


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Psychology is defined as the discipline concerned with
behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external enviroment
Contemporary psychologists unlike Aristotle to Zoroaster realy heavily upon
Empirical evidence
Psychoanalysis is
a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy emphasizing unconcios motives and conflict
The cognitive psychological approach
emphasized what goes on in people's heads-how people reason, remember, understand language, solve problems, explain experiences, acquire moral standards, and form beliefs.

A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas or behavior.
The learning psychological approach is..
a psychologial approach that emphasizes how the enviroment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories
Which is the biological perspective to stop smoking?
finding a drug that helps reduce Mark's craving for nicotine
A psychiatrist is
diagnoses, treats, and/or studies mental and emotional problems, both mild and serve. BUT is likely to cure something with a PILL/takes more biological approach; has a medical degree M.D. with a specialty in psychiatry
Hypothesis is
a statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relationships among events or variables and are empirically tested
When we say that smokers are more likely to be depressed and to develop cancer we infer that
chronic depresssion is realted to cancer
a case study is
a detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated
Psychological tests are
procedures used to measure and evaluate a personality traits, emotional states, aptitutes, interests, abilities, and values
A reliable test must
produce same result from one time to the next
In order for a test to be valid
it must measure what is designed/intended to measure
Correlation is
a meaure of how strongly two variables are related to each other

positive correlation - both same direction
negative correlation - each opposite direction
Negative correlation
high value of one associated with low value of other
Positive correlation
both variables have same values e.g. income/living income/dental disease
Correlation coefficient
a measure of correlation that ranges in value from -1.00 to +1.00

stronges value is one closest to 1.
a controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another
independent variable
a variable that an experimenter manipulates. e.g. if hypo of exp is "Nicotine impairs driving" then IV is use of nicotine
random assignment
a procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups in which ech individual has the same probability as any other of being assigned to a given group.
A result is significant if it occurs by chance
5 or less times in 100 reps of the study
Norms are
in test construction, established standards of performance
T/F - A sample's representativeness is less critical than the size
T/F-When correlation coefficient indicates a strong relationship between 2 variables, 1 variable is causing the other
T/F- the variable that an experimenter manipulates is the dependent variable?
Instinct is
a source of knowledge
What is personality
refers to a distictive pattern of behavior, manerisms, thoughts, and emotions that characterizes and individual over time.
Traits are
habitual ways of behaving, thinking, and feeling: shy, realiable, friendly, hostile, gloomy, confident, ambitious, and so on.
Which is NOT a personality trait?
Temperaments are
physiological dispositions to respond to the enviroment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and are assumed to be innnate
50% of happiness is attributed to
genetics according to behavioral geneticists
If a child is highly reactive during childhood and a parent fears they will become fearful you would tell them
babies extremely reactive become average children, not shy not outgoing
Behavorist view of personality is?
people do not have traits they simply show certain behavior patterns
Social cognitive learning theory believes that
combined elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, and intentions. A major contemporary learning view of personality, which holds that a personality results from a person's learning history and his or her expectations, beliefs, perceptions of events, and other cognitions
What is the most popular personality theory?
psychodynamic theory
Group harmony view
defines self in the context of relationships with others
The ego is
is psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards.
self fulling prophecy is
a person's expectation that is fullfilled because of the tendency of the person holding it to act in ways that bring it about
The surpergo is
in psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards
Repression occurs when
a threatening idea, memory, or emotion is blocked form conciousness.
Displacement occurs
when people direct their emotions toward things animals, or other people that are not the real object of their feelings
Reaction formation occurs
when a feeling that produces unconcious anxiety is transformed into its opposite in consciousness. Ana person being cook!
Oral stage is
stage that occurs during the first year of life, when babies experience the world through their mouths. As adults they will seek oral gratification in smoking, overating, nail biting, or chewing on objects
Which view is this

"our capacity to shape our own future"
humanist approach to personality
Which is a major critic to humasnist theory of personality?
they are unstable
Carl Roger's loves his wife only at certain times when she is looking her best? what kind of regard
conditional positive regard
defense mechanism is
a method used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness
P. T. Barnum effect
Psychological term for the tendency of individuals to accept very general or vague characterizations of themselves and take them to be accurate. A good example of this can be seen when people believe what is said about them in psychometric tests, personality profiles, astrological predictions, and so on. This phenomenon is named after P. T. Barnum, who believed that a good circus had "a little something for everybody."
Internal Locus of control
People tend to ascribe their chances of future successes or failures either to internal or external causes. Persons with an internal locus of control see themselves as responsible for the outcomes of their own actions.
External locus of control
Someone with an external locus of control, on the other hand, sees environmental causes and situational factors as being more important than internal ones. These individuals would be more likely to see luck rather than effort, as determining whether they succeed or fail in the future.
a pattern of behavior acquired through frequent repetition; "she had a habit twirling the ends of her hair"; "long use had hardened him to it"

An act, behavioral response, practice, or custom established in one's repertoire by frequent repetition of the same act.

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