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Political Science 200 MT


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A word, phrase, or clause, that is replaced by a pronoun or other substitute later, or occasionally earlier, in the same or in another, usually subsequent, sentence. In Jane lost a glove and she can't find it, Jane is the antecedent of she and glove is the antecedent of it. (make sure who, which, and that agree with their antecedent.
Coordinating Conjunction
FANBOYS, connects two ideas (not necessarily independent clauses--pg. 235 Hacker).
Words that are used as replacements or substitutes for nouns and noun phrases, and that have very general reference: I, you, he, this, who, what, anybody, anyone, each, either, everybody, everyone, neither, no one, somebody...etc.
Grammar. a syntactic relation between expressions, usually consecutive, that have the same function and the same relation to other elements in the sentence, the second expression identifying or supplementing the first. In Washington, our first president, the phrase our first president is in apposition with Washington.
Comma Splice
the use of a comma, rather than a semicolon, colon, or period, to separate related main clauses in the absence of a coordinating conjunction: often considered to be incorrect or undesirable, esp. in formal writing.
any member of a class of words found in many languages that are used before nouns, pronouns, or other substantives to form phrases functioning as modifiers of verbs, nouns, or adjectives, and that typically express a spatial, temporal, or other relationship, as in, on, by, to, since.
Describe the difference between lay and lie.
Lie: to recline or rest on a surface. Intransitive, does not take direct object. (The tax forms lie on the table)
Lay: to put or place something. Transitive, takes direct object. (Please lay the tax forms on the table)
Explain why an ambiguous reference occurs and how to fix it. Provide an example.
Occurs when the pronoun could refer to two possible antecedents. (When Gloria set the pitcher on the glass-topped table, it broke. Revise to make more clear (When Gloria set it on the glass-topped table, the pitcher broke.
Name a few circumstances when using a comma is appropriate (ex. between coordinate adjectives not joined by and)
Before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clauses, after an introductory word group, between all items in series, to set off nonrestrictive elements.
Describe the difference between who and whom.
Who/whoever: subjective-case pronouns, used for subjects and subject compliments.
Whom/whomever: objective-case pronouns, used for objects.
When is it appropriate to use a semicolon?
Between closely related independent clauses not joined with a coordinating conjuction, between independent clauses linked with a transitional expression (anyway, furthermore, after all, even so), between items in a series containing internal punctuation.
Parallel Structures
Used to underscore the similarity of ideas, and to bind together a series of sentences expressing similar information. Blah blah blah, The salt spills. A knife falls to the floor.
Bridges between what has been read and what is about to be read. They help readers move from sentence to sentence and alert readers to more global connections of ideas-those between paragraphs or even larger blocks of text. (For example, next, farther on, therefore)
A word, phrase, or clause that limits or qualifies the sense of another word or word group. (I ate almost the whole chicken, I almost ate the whole chicken)
When you use words that mean the same thing, "true fact" for ex. We should recognize these to eliminate them from our writing because it's not succinct writing.
Inflated Phrases
In my opinion, I think that, it seems that, one must admit that, etc. So make more concise: "along the lines of"=like. "As a matter of fact"=in fact. "In the event that"=if.
Active Verbs
Express meaning more emphatically and vigorously than their weaker counterparts--forms of the verb be or verbs in passive voice.
Jargon and Prentious Language
Jargon: specialized language used among members of a trade, profession, or group. Only use when readers will be familiar with it and only when plain English won't do as well.
Prentencious: Large words and flowery language.
Sexist Language
Stereotypes or demeans men or women, usually women.
Businessman: Businessperson
Mailman: Mail Carrier
No more dazzle.
Blind as a bat.
Airline schedules, exchange rates; useful and accurate descriptions of reality; churning, transitory reality (short shelf life)
Proximate Truths
Verifiable (scientific method), very useful and valuable, what and how of universe (not why), some churning.
Eternal Truths
Really were/are/will be; constancy; "whys"; salvational, personal, crucial; verifiable (Alma).
An attempt to identify and test empirical generalizations.
the object of science-a hypothesis affirmed by testing; the raw stuff of theories
Facts of real world retrieved through senses
not dependent on researcher's bias
reflects our judgements about what should be about the world.
Logical Fallacies
unreasonable argumentative tactics
Hasty Generalization
conclusion based on insufficient or unrepresentative data.
hasty generalization about a group
False Analogy
off-base analogy (moon and cold)
Non Sequitur
an inference or a conclusion that does not follow from the premises.
Straw Man Fallacy
oversimplification or outright distortion of opposing views
Deductive Reasoning
reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect); Logic. an argument the conclusion of which is supported by two premises, of which one (major premise) contains the term (major term) that is the predicate of the conclusion, and the other (minor premise) contains the term (minor term) that is the subject of the conclusion; common to both premises is a term (middle term) that is excluded from the conclusion. A typical form is “All A is C; all B is A; therefore all B is C.”
A set of empirical generalizations about a topic (can't test directly-too abstract relationship)
organizes a study-proposes relationship between 2 or more variables
An empirical property that can take on 2 or more different values.
Operational definition
a description of an experimental procedure for the translation of a variable into measurement or numeric value
control variable
a factor held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable
unit of analysis
The objects that the hypothesis describes (could be individual or group...avoid ecological fallacy and individual fallacy)
inherent, how much
measure of variable, if produces same result when diff. people use it.
how accurate
The closer a quantified measure comes to to reflecting the definition of the underlying concept the research is concerned with, the more valid a measure is.
Scientific Method
variables identified, hypothesis, reality test, evaluation/generalization, suggestions about significance of finding.
The ablility to repeat a study as a way of chekcing on its validity.
empirical observations of one or more variables for a number of cases, collected according to the same operational definitions.
the body of content to which we wish to generalize
depends on personal judgement (intercoder reliability)
research design
logical method by which we propose to test a hypothesis
correlational design
one variable causes another
evidence that 2 phenomena tend to occur at the same time
case study
the history of a particular event is recounted and analyzed, sometimes in great depth. The author seeks to shed some light on why those decision were reached, but since only once case is studied, we have no way of knowing what the outcome would have been if conditions and actions had been different.
Dichotomous variable
has only 2 values or categories (can by any level of measurement, dummy variables, 1/0)
a numerical measure that summarizes some characteristic of a larger body of data.
measure os central tendency
arithmetic average (sum and divide by # cat) Interval
middle, int./ord.
most common, int, ord, nom
some extreme cases that can greatly affect mean
int., how closely or widely cases are separated on a variable
simplest measure of dispersion, diff. b/w highest and lowest values.
standard deviation
most common measure of dispersion, based on summation of difference of each case from mean.
the probability that a relationship b/w variables could have occurred by chance in a random sample if there were no relationship b/w them inthe population from which the sample was drawn--only from random sampling.
What is the main point of PlSc200?
to gain new knowledge
How does this class help me achieve the main objective of 200?
Helps us by teaching us scientific method and methods of research
When we say "science as a process" what does that process entail?
observation, theory, test, analysis, conclusion
Describe three careers that require
lawyers, public officials, businesspoeple.
What is the possessive of it

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