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chap.8 key terms


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transmission of genetic traits from parent to offspring
study of heredity
cross involving one pair of contrasting traits
monohybrid cross
displaying only one form of a particular trait in offspring
the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
P generation
the first offspring from a cross of two arieties in the parent generation
F1 generation
the offspring from crosses among individuals of the F1 generation
F2 generation
an alternative form of a gene
genetic trait that is expressed when its allele is homozygous or heterozygous
genetic trait that is not expressed when the contrasting form of the triat is present
refers to an individual with two identical alleles for a trait
refers to an individual with two different alleles for a trait
the genetic makeup of an organism as indicated by its set of alleles
observable characteristics of an organism
first law of heredity stating that pairs of alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed
law of segregation
second law of heredity stating that pairs of genes separate independently of one another
law of independent assortment
diagram used by biologists to predict the probable outcome of a genetic cross
punnett square
a genetic cross of an individual whose phenotype is dominant but whose genotype is unknown, with a homozygous recessive individual
the likelihood that a specific event with occur
family history that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations
a trait that is determined by a gene found on the X chromosome
sex-linked trait
characteristic of an organism that is influenced by several genes
polygenic trait
condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of its two parents
incomplete dominance
condition in which both alleles for a gene are expressed when pressent
the existence of more than two alleles (versions of the gene) for a genetic trait
multiple alleles

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