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FMF pin Ch 1.2 (History) Part 1


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What Happened in 1775?
Marine Corps was created at
Tun Tavern on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia, PA
A resolution from the Continental Congress, "raised two battalions of Marines."
Captain Samuel Nicholas became the commander, and is traditionally considered the first Commandant of the Marine Corps.
In 1834, the Marines came under the Department of the Navy.
The National Security Act of 1947, amended in 1952, states the present structure, missions, and functions of the Marine Corps.
What Happened in 1776?
The first Marine landing took place during the Revolutionary War.
Invasion took place on New Providence Island in the Bahamas
The uniform of the day had a stiff leather stock that was worn around the neck, thus the nickname "Leatherneck
What Happened in 1805?
Marines stormed the Barbary pirates' stronghold at Burma on the "Shores of Tripoli." Marines raised the "Stars and Stripes" for the first time in the Eastern Hemisphere.
What Happened in 1847?
During the Mexican War
Marines occupied the "Halls of Montezuma" during the Battle of Chapultepec in Mexico City.
The royal palace fell to invading Marines, who were among the first United States troops to enter the capital. Marines also helped take California. Also thats were marine corps earned there blood stripe
what happened in 1859?
Colonel Robert E. Lee of the U.S. Army, commanded the Marines that stormed the United States arsenal at Harper's Ferry, stopping an attempted slave revolt lead by abolitionist John Brown
what happened in 1868?
The Marine Corps adopted an emblem form the British (Royal) Marines, which was modified by Brigadier General Jacob Zeilin, 7th Commandant of the Marine Corps.
The emblem consisted of an eagle, globe, and anchor, which depicts Marines as both American and maritime.
The globe and anchor signifies worldwide service and sea traditions. The spread eagle is a symbol of the Nation itself.
what happened in 1883?
The Marine Corps Motto
“Semper Fidelis,” (Latin for “Always Faithful”) was adopted. The phrase is more commonly heard as its abbreviation, “Semper Fi”.
what happened in 1900?
Supporting foreign policy, Marines from ships on the Asiatic station, defended the American Legation in Peking, China during the Boxer Rebellion.
The Marines were part of a multinational defense force that protected the Legation Quarter against attack.
This small defense force held out against the Boxers until a relief force was able to reach Peking and end the rebellion
what happened in 1913?
The Marine Corps established its aviation unit. The first pilot was Marine Major Alfred A. Cunningham.
what happened in 1917?
Marines landed as part of the American force in France.
Marines participating in eight distinct operations, distinguished themselves and were awarded a number of decorations, among them the French Fourragere still worn by members of the 5th and 6th Marines.
what happened in 1933?
The Marine Corps was reorganized into the Fleet Marine Force, formally establishing the "command and administrative relations" between the Fleet and the Marine Corps.
The Marine Corps Equipment Board was established at Quantico, Virginia, and Marines began devoting long hours, testing and developing materials for landing operations and expeditionary service.
what happened in 1965?
Marines landed in South Vietnam, which committed the Marine Corps to the longest war in its history.
Marines conducted numerous large scale offensive operations throughout the course of the war, as well as participating in the pacification program designed to win the support of the local populace.
Also, in response to an attempted coup of the local government, Marines landed in the Dominican Republic to evacuate and protect U.S. citizens. The Marines formed the core of a multinational force that quickly restored the peace.
what happened in 1982?
Marines deployed to Lebanon as part of a multinational peacekeeping force in an effort to restore peace and order to this war-torn country.
This action further displayed the Marine concept of a "Force in Readiness." On 23 October 1983, a suicide truck bomb attack on headquarters building the killed 241 Americans and wounded 70 others. The last Marine unit withdrew in July of 1984.
what happened in 1991?
Operation Desert Storm was launched after the Iraqi government refused to comply with United Nations resolutions.
Marine aviation was heavily used when the air phase commenced in January of 1991. When massive bombing failed to dislodge Iraqi forces, Marine ground forces swept into Kuwait and liberated the country, causing severe damage
The Battle of Belleu Wood ?
Marines helped to crush a German offensive at Belleau Wood that threatened Paris
the French renamed the arrea "the Wood of the Brigade of Marines
German intelligence evaluated the Marines as "stom troops"
German troops called their new enemy "Teufelhunden" or "Devildogs," a nickname in which Marines share pride.
The Battle of Guadalcanal ?
On 7 August 1942, the 1st Marine Division landed on the beaches of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands and launched the first United States land offensive of World War II. This battle marked the first combat test of the new amphibious doctrine
The Battle of Mariana Islands?
Due to the need for airfields by the Air Force and advanced bases for the Navy, the Marianas were invaded. Landings on the islands of Saipan, Guam, and Tinian accomplished this. During June and July of 1943
Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith led a combined invasion force of Marines and soldiers that totaled 136,000. This was the greatest number of troops up to that time to operate in the field under over Marine command.
The Battle of Tarawa?
Tarawa Atoll and Betio Island which had been fortified to the point that the Japanese commander proclaimed that it would take a millon Americans 100 years to conquer it. On 20 November 1943, Marines landed and secured the island within 76 hours
The Battle of Iwo Jima?
On 19 February 1945, Marines landed on Iwo Jima in what was the largest all-Marine battle in history. It was also the bloodiest in Marine Corps history. The Marine Corps suffered over 23,300 casualties
Admiral Chester W. Nimitz said, "Among the Americans who served on Iwo Island, uncommon valor was a common virtue
The Battle of Chosin Reservior?
After pushing far into North Korea during November of 1950, Marines were cut off after the Chinese Communist Forces entered the war. Despite facing a 10-division force sent to annihilate them, Marines smashed seven enemy divisions in their march from the Chosin Reservoir. The major significance of this retrograde movement was that Marines brought out all operable equipment, properly evacuated their wounded and dead, and maintained tactical integrity.
The Battle of Hue City?
During the Vietnamese holiday of Tet in January of 1968, Communist forces launched a surprise offensive by infiltrating large numbers of their troops into the major population centers of Hue City, South Vietnam. A near division-size unit of NVA troops occupied the city of Hue and the Citadel. Marines fought in built-up areas for the first time since the Korean War foregoing the application of heavy arms to minimize civilian casualties. Fighting was house-to-house with progress measured in yards. The city was secured on 25 February 1968.
Archibald Henderson?
Brevet Brigadier General Archibald Henderson became Commandant in 1820 and held his command for 39 years until his death in 1859. General Henderson led the Corps through the Indian Wars, the War with Mexico, the opening of China, and the disorders in Central America. The "Grand Old Man of the Marine Corps," as he is often called, introduced higher standards of personal appearance, training, discipline, and strived to have the Marine Corps known as a professional military force, capable of more than just sea and guard duties.
John Quick?
Sergeant Major Quick is remembered for his performance at Cuzco Well (Guantanamo Bay, Cuba) where he participated in an operation to seize an advanced base for the Atlantic Fleet battalion of Marines. The Sergeant Major won the Medal of Honor for semaphoring for an emergency lift of the naval bombardment while under Spanish and American shellfire. The landing at Guantanamo demonstrated the usefulness of Marines as assault troops. When employed with the fleet, Marines gave added strength for the capture and defense of advanced bases, becoming a primary mission of the Marine Corps (1898).
Dan Daly?
Sergeant Major Daly is recognized for earning two Medals of Honor: (1) Chinese Boxer Rebellion and (2) First Caco War in Haiti. When his unit had been pinned down and their attack was stalled during the Battle of Belleau Wood, then Gunnery Sergeant Daly yelled to his men, "Come on, you sons of a b-----, do you want to live forever?“
Louis B. ("Chesty") Puller?
Lieutenant General Puller served in Nicaragua through several periods of political unrest and rebellious activity. Puller and a force of about 32 Marines became famous for their ability to engage rebel groups and bandits while scouring the jungles in a wide area of Nicaragua to the Honduran border. Puller became known as the "Tiger of the Mountains" (1930). The Marine Corps' mascot, an English bulldog named "Chesty," is named for this brave and fine Marine Corps officer.
Gregory R. ("Pappy") Boyington?
Major Boyington is recognized for Marine prowess in aerial dogfights. "Pappy" commanded VMH-214, the "Black Sheep," during World War II. By the end of the War, the Major was recognized as the Marine Corps' top ranking flying ace with 28 victories ("kills") (1945).
Ira H. Hayes?
The Fifth Amphibious Corps of Marines, commanded by Major General Harry Schmidt, was assigned to take Iwo Jima. Corporal Ira Hayes, a Pima Indian, was one of the Marines immortalized in the now famous photograph (not shown) taken of the second flag raising incident on Mount Suribachi shortly after the Japanese stronghold was taken on 23 February 1945
Opha Mae Johnson?
Private Johnson became the Marine Corps' first enlisted woman on 13 August 1918. Her enlistment was a reflection of the dramatic changes in the status of women brought about by the entry of the United States into World War I. Marine Reserve (F) was the official title by which the Marine Corps' first enlisted women were known. They were better known as "skirt Marines" and "Marinettes
Margaret A. Brewer?
Brigadier General Brewer, then a Colonel, served as the Director of Women Marines (WM) during the period 1973-1977. She was the seventh and last director of WM, the only post-World War woman to hold the position. Margaret Brewer became the Marine Corps' first woman general officer on 11 May 1978.
Boarding a naval ship between 0800 to sunset.
(a) Face aft upon reaching the top of the gangway (brow).
(b) Salute the National Ensign.
(c) Salute the officer of the deck (OD), who will be standing on the quarterdeck at the head of the gangway.
(d) Request “Permission to come aboard.”
Departing a naval ship between 0800 and sunset.
(a) Salute the OD and request “Permission to go ashore.”
(b) Go to the brow, turn aft, and salute the National Ensign
Discuss the procedures for rendering honors and circumstances during which honors are rendered during colors, the national anthem, and boarding naval vessels
If You are neither in formation nor in a vehicle
Then Render the prescribed salute and hold the salute until the last note of music is sounded.
If No flag is near
Then Face the music and salute.
If You are in formation
Then Salute only on the command, “present arms.”
If You are outdoors and uncovered
Then Stand at attention face the direction of the flag or music.
If You are indoors
Then Stand at attention face the music and/or flag. 
If You are in a vehicle
Then Driver halt vehicle, passengers and driver remain seated at attention and do not salute.
Discuss the circumstances when a hand salute is rendered and when it is not
Do not salute when
(a) At work indoors (except when under arms)
(b) Guarding prisoners
(c) Under battle conditions
(d) A prisoner
(e) In ranks, at games, or part of a working detail
(f) At crowded gatherings, in public conveyances, or in congested areas, unless you are addressing or are being directly addressed by a senior
(g) Doing so would physically interfere with your performance of an assigned duty or would create a hazard

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