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byzantine/ muslim empires test


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What was another name for the Byzantine Empire? Why was it called this?
Eastern Rome Empire because of the cotinuation of the Roman empires
When was the Byzantine Empire at its greatest size?
500’s AD under Justinian’s rule
How did the Byzantine Empire get its name?
Greek word Byzantium meaning city on the Bosporus
What civilization had the greatest influence on the city of Byzantium? Explain.
Greek- descendants of ancient people, spoke greek. Colonized the area, Alexander the Great brought his troops there, greek culture was an important influence
Who founded the city of Constantinople? When?
Constantine the Roman emperor in 330 AD
What 2 civilizations influenced the Byzantine Empire? How?
Greek and Rome because they used to rule that area. Rome- upper class spoke latin, roman laws and political institutions Greece- common people spoke greek, greek orthodox christianity. Both greek and roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries
Why was the location of the city of Constantinople so important?
The people had harbors there, was easily fortified, located on the Bosporus strait, controlled trade between Europe and Asia, could protect the eastern frontier, could protect itself from western barbarians
Why was Constantinople so important to the preservation of Greek and Roman culture?
Both cultures once thrived there so they were able to keep the cultures in libraries which still are there today
Name 3 types of art for which Byzantine artists were known.
Illuminations manuscripts- (or small paintings on manuscripts)
Icons- orthodox religious images of saints or religious figiures
Mosaics- pictures made of tiny pieces of colored glass or stones
Who conquered the Byzantine Empire? When? Why?
Ottoman Turks because of a lot of wars in 1453
5 things that the Roman Empire and the Byzantine empire had in common.
Influenced by Greek
Thrived for a long time
Changed capitals name
Emperors ruled
Conquered by other peoples
2 differences between the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire.
Emperors were able to maintain control of their empire
The Byzantine empire made mosaics and Roman empire had sculptures
How much longer after the fall of the Western Empire did the Byzantine Empire last in the East?
Almost 1000 years
What was the Byzantine Empire constantly challenged by?
what is Islam?
the religion based on the teachings of the prophet Muhammad
1. What features made Constantinople’s location so advantageous?
Constantinople was very advantageous because its location was easily fortified. It was on a natural harbor and it was a peninsula so they were able to control a lot of the land around it. It was on the Bosporous strait so they were able to control trade in that area. They also controlled the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea so they could block off access to all the oceans from their location. The seas made naval defense very easy so they were protected from other people and could easily attack other peoples.
2. What was Justinian’s Code and why was it so significant to European history?
Justinian’s code was a unifying of all the laws from Rome. He rewrote and reorganized the laws so that they made sense because at many of them were confusing. This was significant because many countries have adopted similar law codes or have used Justinian’s code as a basis for their law. It was used for law in the Byzantine empire for 900 years. The law code helped to preserve the legal ideas from the Romans from before they were conquered by the Byzantines.
4. What was the battle of Tours and why was it so important to the future of Europe?
The battle of Tours was a battle of the Muslims in Spain or Moors against the French. This battle was important because it was a battle of people of different faiths. The Moors believed were Islamic and the French were Christian. The battle halted the growth in for the Islam empire. It made christianity remain the dominant religion and stopped the growth of Islam further.
3. How did geography influence the rapid expansion of territory under Muslim rule?
The geography of the Arabian Peninsula made it so that they needed more land. The Muslims needed more land for farming because they lived in the desert so obviously they wanted to find more arable land. They conquered other peoples and were very tolerant of them so they did not rebel. Because the people didn’t rebel they were able to keep the peace on the mainland and go to other places to conquer land. Since they didn’t force the people to change many did not mind and so they would expand without fight.
6. Compare and contrast the Roman Catholic and Eastern Greek Orthodox Church. You should have 3 differences and 2 similarities
The Roman Catholics and Eastern Greek Orthodox churches both believe Jesus Christ is an incarnation of God. Both churches also believe in a life after death. The western church meetings are in Latin while the eastern church meetings are in Greek. The Eastern church is orthodox christianity while the Western church is catholic christianity. The Western church is centered around Rome and the Eastern church is centered around Constantinople.
7. Briefly explain the Sunni - Shi’a (Shiite) division in the Islamic faith. What is the fundamental conflict and how does each group stand?
When Muhammad died he did not leave a successor. The difference between the Sunnis and the Shia’s are who they believe should be next in line for authority. The Sunni think that the leadership should be voted on and settled by agreement. The Shi’a think that the leadership should belong to a descendant of Muhammad. About 90% of all Muslims are Sunni and 10% are Shi’a.
5. (WHI.8d) Name two Islamic contributions and briefly explain their impact on world culture.
Two contributions from Islam are Mathematics and geography. The Muslims introduced the type of math called Algebra and they also used geometry which led to the development of trigonometry. They used the math for practical purposes like creating and designing architecture. The Muslims were some of the first people to discover that the world was round, they also found the circumference of the earth. They were very accurate with their measurements and were able to create the outline of most of the eastern hemisphere.
When did Justinian rule?
From 527- 565 CE
What did Justinian have accomplishments in?
Law, building of Constantinople, Conquest of territory, and the expansion of trade
Who collected and codified all of the laws?
Justinian ordered scholars
Where were the former laws from?
former Roman territories
what were the 4 parts to the code?
Codex, digest, institutes, and novellae
How many years was it basis for law for and where?
900 years in Western Europe
What were the most magnificent buildings Justinian built?
the Imperial Palace, Hagia Sophia or the Church of Holy Wisdom, the Hippodrome, and the University
Which building Justinian built still stands today?
The Hagia Sophia
Where were extravagant and bloody scenes and sporting events?
The Hippodrome
What was Justinian’s general’s name?
What did he try to gain by fighting?
All of the Roman Empire
How much did he lose when he died?
All of it
How did they mostly trade?
Ship/ water
Why aren’t there any famous Byzantine artists?
because most were unnamed
What helped Constantinople to act as the Christian and Byzantine capital?
Economic prosperity made it a strong capital
What factors contributed to economic stability ?
Geographic location, guilds (trade unions) marketplaces, political stability
What was important about Constantinople’s currency?
Secure, gold based money called the solidus, and other lesser valued silver based coin contributed to economic stability
What were the warehouses used for?
Held imported goods until they could be sent to where they were needed
What were the guilds and who controlled them?
Created by the government to help trade prosper, guilds were labor groups that had strict rules it was through the guild system that people learned different trades, but many were forced into occupations because of the guild system
How did guilds restrict people’s choice of occupation?
Son’s had to follow in their father’s occupation
What contributed to the city’s security?
A large army, huge walls and towers and powerful military technology
3 walls and a chain across the Inlet
Why did the city’s soldiers fight with great spirit?
They believed they were fighting under the name and will of the Christian god
Other than water, what protected Constantinople?
Three parallel walls, and a moat 30 feet in depth, chain across the Inlet
In what ways did Constantinople protect against invasions?
Had golden horn inlet which made it difficult for enemy ships to reach the city’s harbors, spied on people from other countries and analyzed whether their leaders might threaten Constantinople
Describe Justinian’s use of his army.
Dominated Vandals in North Africa, Ostrogoths in Italy, and Visigoths in Spain
What was Constantinople’s army’s most dangerous weapon?
Greek fire
What power did the emperor have over Constantinople? What is divine right?
Absolute power The emperor was chosen and given power by god

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