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Social Studies Chapterrrrr 26


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neatrality acts
banned arm sales or loans to countries at war
why was isolationism strong in the 1930's?
b/c the u.s. was concerned w/ economic matters and did not concentrate on events in europe
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR began this to imrpove relations w/ Latin America. He withdrew US troops from Nicaragua and withdrew the Platt amendment which had limited cuban independence
what kind of control was there in Italhy and Germany and how did it come to be?
dictators--they exploited economic troubles and feelings of extreme nationalism
seized power of italy in 1922-gained control by stressing discontent with the versailles treaty and fear of communism
what party was mussolini in?
fascist party
what did mussolini do when he was in power???
-outlawed all political parties except his own
-controlled the press
-banned criticism
what was mussolini's nickname
"Il Duce" (the leader)
what did mussolini do to try to revive the roman empire
-invaded ethiopia in 1935-league of nations objected but took no military action
what did germans feel about the versailles treaty
they bitterly resented that they had been blamed for wwI and the reparations ruinted their economy
National Socialist German Workers' Party
-nazis-helped hitler to gain power in germany
how did hitler win power in germany?
-preached racial and religious hatred and claimed that germans belonged to a superior "aryan" race
-blamed jews for germay's troubles
-nazis used force to control and get rid of other political groups
what were 2 things hitler did good
-powerful speaker
-skilled leader
at what time did the nazis gain power
when the depression hit germany
what was kitlers position in germany in 1933
chancellor of germany
what did hitler do as chancellor of germany?
-he ended democratic government and created a totaliterian state
-criticism was not permitted
-nazi government controlled the press, schools, and religion
-laws were passed depriving jews of their citizenship and virtually every other right
totaliterian state
single party control over the government and every aspect of people's lives
how did germany go against the versailles treaty?
it built up its armed forces--the league of nations condemned these actions
joseph stalin
totaliterian dictator who came to power in the soviet union in 1924 after lenin's death
collective farms
government-run farms
any warlike act by one country against nother without a casue
what kind of power did stalin put over the soviet union
he tried to modernize soviet industry by launching a series of 5 year plans-anyone who opposed him faced prison or death
who took power of japan in the early 1903's
militaryt leaders took power---they felt that japan should expand to gain resources like coal and oil
what happened between japan and china and what did the league of nations do
japan took Manchuria in northern china. Japan began an all out war against china and occupied northern and central areas of china
What was the steps that led to the war?
1) 1936- hitler moved troops into the Rhineland against the Versailles treaty
2) 1938-Hitler annexed austria
3) hitler demaned the Sudetenland (western part of Czechoslavakia).
4)1938-munich conference
5) 1939- Nazi-Soviet Pact
6) Sept. 1939-hitler invades poland-WWII begins
Munich Conference
hitler assured that he wanted no more land and france and britain gave in to him and let him have Sudetenland
how did hitler go against this?
he took all of czechoslavakia
giving in to aggression to avoid further conflict
nazi-soviet pact
hitler and stalin agreed not to attack each other. secretly, the two nations agreed to divide up poland and other parts of earstern europe
axis powers
germany, italy, japan, and six others nations
opposed the axis powers-included Brtain, France, the Soviet Union (after 1941), the US (after Pearl Harbor), China, and 45 other countries.
WWII was the most ______ war in human history
lighning war-decribes germany's attack against poland
what countries did the Soivet Union seize and why?
eastern Poland and eastern Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia
b/c Stalin wanted to streghthen Soviet defenses since he suspected that hitler would eventually attack him
what countries did hitler's army smash through before france in april 1940?
denmark, norway, holland, and belgium
what happened before france surrendered?
hitler attacked france and the british sent troops to france but were forced to retreat at dunkirk where thousands of british ships including fishing boats and pleasure crafts helped to rescue the trapped soliders-france surrended in june 1940
Prime Minister of Great Britain
battle of britain
-german planes punded british cities w/ nightly bombs
-winston churchill helped to rally the british ppl
-british fighter pilots, members of te Royal Air Force, gunned down thousands of German planes
hhow did the us help britain>
it gave them 50 american destroyers in return for miliary bases
what did congress approve for the first time ever in 1940?
approved the first peactime draft in history
election of 1940
the threat of war promted FDR to seek an unprecedented third term-his opponent was Wendell Wilkie-voters have FDR a clear victory
lend-lease act
allowed loans of war materials to the allies who badly needed support
-us sent airplanes, guns, tanks, etc. to britain and the soviet union
what did the u.s. become when it sent all this stuff to Great britain and the soviet union
the "arsenal of democracy"
atlantic charter
issued by FDR and churchill
-set up goals for the postwar world including a new organization to replace the league of nations
what from what countries did japan take colonies?
-holland and france
how did the u.s. try to end japanese aggression
-put an embargo on oil and scrap metal to japan
what was japan's response to the embrago
they were angered and the countries held peace talks-u.s. wanted japanese to take armies out of china- but couldnt compromise so the japanese completed plans for a secret attack on the u.s.
pearl harbor
-japanese attacked the pacific fleet at pearl habor, hawaii on dec. 7, 1941
-over 19 ships and 200 planes wwere destroyed or damaged and over 2,400 lives were lost
-FDR called it a "date that will live in infamy" and asked for a declaration of war against japan
-3 days later, germany and italy declared war on the u.s.
what did victory depend on for the allies???
-efforts to support and supply allied forces
-victory depended on successfully mobilizing the home front
what happened w/ the armed forces after pearl harbor??
millions of men and women volunteered to serve in the armed forces. many others found work in key war industries-they produced guns, tanks, airplanes, and other supplies
-10 million men were drafted and another six million men and women enlisted
how were women involed in the war effort???
they served close to the front lines but they were not allowed in combat and served in special segregated units
how did the government control the economy even more in wwII than wwI?
government agencies set prices, negotiated w/ labor unions, and rationed scarce goods
--relief programs were no longer needed
-unemployment feel, minority workers found jobs, and wages rose
War Production Board
helped factories shift from making consumer goods to making war goods
how did americans tremendously increase production
-over 60,000 planes were produced
-consumers suffered shortages because industries were making war goods
-after feb. 1942, no new cars were made
how did women change during the war???
they responded to the urgent need for their labor
-more than 6 million women entered the work force
-worked in factories and offices while others worked as bus drives or police officers
-received better pay and conditions than before the war
a philip randoplh
a black labor leader who met with FDR concerning discrimination in the u.s. and fdr then ordered employeres doing business w/ the governmnet to end discrimination in hiring
explain racial segregation in the military
all black units were commanded by white officers
-depsite this, blacks served heroically
-the courage of black fighting units convinced President Truman to end segregation in the armed forces in 1948
why did racial tensions grow during the war??
thousands of americans moved to cities to work in industry-competition for scarce housing led to violence in some instances
desribe native americna contributions in the war
-native americans supplied the highest proportion of servicemen of any ethnic group
-navajo soldiers used their language as a code for sending secret messages
hispanic contribtions
thousands of hispanic americans served in the armed forces and they won many awards for bravery
how were japanese americans treated during world war II
-after pearl harbor, the loyaly of japanese americans was questioned, even though no evidence of it existed
-fdr agreed to moved them from the west coast to inland camps
-only had a few days to sell homes and sell businesses generally at great loss
-in 1944, supremem court ruled that camps were necessary wartime measure
how did japanese get involved in war despite this unfair treatment
thousands of japanese american men served in the armed forces. they were put in segreagated units and fought in europe
-the 442nd Nisei regiment became the most decorated military unit in u.s. history
how did america apoligze about the injustice of the inland camps?
america recognized the injustice in 1988 and congress made an official apology to japanese americans and approved a payment of $20,000 to every survivor of the camps
why did allied prospects seem grim in 1941?
hitler's armies occupied most of europe much of north africa. japan was advancing across asia and the pacific
why did the germans seem unbeatable in early 1942?
they held lands from norway to freece and german armies were closing in on moscow, lennigrad, and stalingrad in the Soviet Union.
How did the soviet union try to resist germans??
they bruned crops and destroyed equipment to keep them out of nazi hands. the soviet ppl faced terrible hardships
what lands did the japanese seize after pearl harbor??
guam, wake island, hong kong, and sigapore. they then attacked the philipines and general douglas mcArthur led the defense there. the us was forced to withdraw and macarthur vowed to return. the japanese then took malaya, burma, and the Dutch East Indies.
battle of midway
when the allies began to turn the tide-u.s. won the battle which hampered the japanese offensive and kept japan from attacking hawaii again.
-in solomon islands- marines won control of the island and it became a base from which to counterattack
El Alamein, Egypt
where British forces under General Montgomery defeated German forces under General Erwin Rommel.
what did american forces occupy in northern africa after el almaein?
morocco and aleria. from bases in north africa, the invasion of italy was planned and executed in 1943
what happened in the invasion of italy
the italians soon overthrew mussolini but german troops still occupied much of the country. after difficult fighting, rome was liberated in june of 1944
how did the russians hold their ground??
despite a massive nazi assault, thee soviet army started to pushthe germans back from stalingrad and leningrad and westward through eastern europe
Operation Overlord
the code name of the invasion of europe that took years of planning. general dwight eisenhower was appointed commander of allied forces in europe. he organized the invasion w/ the task of transporting 3 million troops and supplies across the english channel to france. the germans knew an attack was coming but now when and where so they had heavily fortified much of the atlantic coast of france.
june 6, 1944, when allied troops scrambled ashore in mormany, france. despite intence german gunfire and heavy losses, they pushed on. in august 1944 paris was liberated from four years of nazi control.
battle of the bulge
by septemeber 1944, the allies were moving east towards germany. there were shortages of fuel which slowed down their advance. then in december, the germans began a counterattack called the battle of the bulge which slowed down the allied troops
election of 1944
FDR ran for a fourth term against Thomas E Dewey who was nominated by the republicans. roosevelt and his running mate, senator harry s. truman, won the election. by 1945, FDR was dead. his death shocked americans b/c he had been president for 12 years. truman had to take over in the midst of a war
V-E day
by april 1945, germany was collapsing. american and soviet troops were closing in on berlin. on may 8th allies celebrated v-e- day, victory in europe day since the Germans had surrendered the previous day.
by mid-1942, what were the two main goals in the pacific war? what did the u.s. have to do for this plan to work
1) to regain the philipines
2) to invade japan
-the u.s. had to control the pacific ocean
island hopping campaign
when the u.s. gained control over most of the islands held by the japanese. there were very heavy casualties since the americans had to overcome fierce japanese resistence.
by october 1944, what islands did the u.s. gain??
american forces had returned to the philipines under general macarthur and had capturedc the islands of Iwo ima and Okinawa. These islands were close to the japanese home islands and were taken with terrible casualities on both sides. japanese kamilkaze polits were desperately trying to change the tide of the war.
potsdam declaration
while allied leaders met at potsdam, germany, in july 1945. while there, truman received news from home that the secret new weapon, the atom bomb, had been successfully tested. from potsdam, allied leaders warned japan to surrender or face a new kind of destruction. japan ignored the warning
bombing of hiroshima
on august 6, 1945, the Enola Gay, an american bomber dropped an atomic bomb on hiroshima. the blast killed 70,000 people and destroyed at least 80% of the city. japan did not surrender
bombing of nagasaki
on august 9th, the u.s. dropped a second bomb on nagasaki,, killing 40,000 people instantly. thousands of additional people died from the effects of the radiation after the initial blast
v-j day
the emperor of japan, hirohito, announced that japan would surrender on august 14, 1945. this day was victory over japan
what were the costs of the war?/
somewhere between 30 and 60 million people were killed in battle or behind the lines. unlike wwI, cities and towns were destroyed on a large scale. millions more were homeless and had no way to earn a living
the bataan death march
a brutal incident where the japanese forced 60,000 american and filipino prisoners to march 100 miles with little food or water. about 10,000 people died or were killed
what did americans discover about the holocaust when they advanced into germany?
they discovered the full extent of the holocaust-hitler's policy of killing jews. during the war, nazis imprisoned jews from germany and other occupied countries. in prison camps, they were tortured and starved and more than 6 miliion jews were murdered. battle hardened veterans wept to see the piles of dead human beings.
nuremberg trials
the allies decided to put the axis leaders on trial. in 1945 and 1946, trials were held in nuremberg, germany. nazi leaders were convicted of war crimes and imprisoned or put to death. some japanese leaders were tried and punished for war crimes

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