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AFP Final


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Levels of analysis:
Systemic Level- Global actors and patterns of interaction
State Level- intrastate transactions
Individual Level-Leaders and individual citizens
Middle East - Creation of Isreal:
The Jews always wanted their own Jewish State. After WWI Britian was okay with this becuase they were the administrator of Palestine in the League of nations. While later the U.S. parties were both trying to gain the Jewish vote. Truman allows more Jews to migrate to Palestine, but the State Dept. and Britian did not approve of this. Truman angered them further in Oct. 1946 by endorsing the creation of a Jewish state. After the UN recomendation, on May 14th 1948, Isreal announces its independence and is immediatly recognized. Egypt, Seria, Jordan, Lebanon, & Iraq all declare war, but lose due to lack of organization.
3rd World in Post-Cold War Era - 4 dimensions that distinguish North from South:
1) Politics- North-Democracy; South is non to weak democracy
2) Technology- North is more advanced and creator of it; South is buyer
3) Wealth- North is wealthy; South is in poverty
4) Demography- North is low population growth; South is very high population growth
3rd World in Post-Cold War Era - (study guide says 6) 7 security concerns:
1) Food security- as population grows so must agricultural growth
2) poverty & urbanization- could lead to social unrest & political turnmoil
3) immagration
5) environmental- water rights
6) deforestation- global warming
7) inter/intra national conflict

These represent middle-range objectives
Three Spectrums of strategy in American Foreign Policy.
Neo-Isolationist vs Internationalist-Stay out or get involved in
Uni-Lateralist vs Multilateralist- Go it alone or get allies like UN, NATO
Idealism vs. Realism - Wilson vs Washington
Ideology, Economics, & Alliance Solidarity - character of U.S. (Atlantic Charter) & USSR; incompatiblility of systems.
Will be up later tonight cannot find answers:
Atlantic Charter
Was a modernized version of Wilson's 14 points. Mentioned most of Wilson's points but had no mention of an international insitution.
What is a Grand Strategy?
What areas of the world and causes are worth fighting and dying for?
Liberal International Economic Order - U.S. support for; Stalin's rejection & incorrect analysis:
U.S. support will be up later in more detail: After WWII U.S. wanted to work with the soviets and see it has a second chance to work multilaterally.

Stalin rejects because he thinks this is a capitalist way in the back door.

Stalin was wrong because:
1) WWII created an even greater incentive for it to happen again.
2) Western World was uni-polar
3) U.S. did not aggressively use their power
4) Economics did not determine everything as Stalin thought it would. Military threat provided incentive.
What was the Soviet advantages & early policies in the 3rd World?
Soviets had two key advantages:
1- They didn't have a colonial past.
2- They believed in rapid industralization.

After the communist revolution in 1949 Staline sees active expansion in 3rd World.
John Ikenberry- 4 principles of LIEO:
1) Economic openness- free trade & free movements of capitol across boarders
2) Joint management- amount leading democratic industrial states
3) Rules & institutions of LIEO must support domestic stability & social welfare
4) Institutions would be focal point of western commitments.
Wilson's foreign policy.
Wilson thought america should be a Crusader of Democracy. He was a multilateralist. Who believed in using organizations. Wanted to help spread the thought of democracy throughout the world. Thought we should fight for morality. He was an idealist. Believed that wars were fought to bring peace.
3rd World and America's colonial history?
The U.S was proud to be anti-colonial and teh 3rd world countries thought U.S. would aid in liberation.
John Ikenberry- U.S. new grand strategy- 7 elements & critique:
Bush Doctrine- "The U.S. will use its military power to confront terrorist threats & rogue states seeking WMD outside of international institutions & mostly unilatterally"

1) The U.S. will remain #1
2) Recognizes new threats & how to handle them
3) Deterence is out dated
4) Changing of the concept of sovereignty.
5) Depresiates international rules, treaties, & security partenerships
6) The U.S. will need to play an uncontrained role in responding to threats
7) It attaches little value to international stability.

- This is not sustainable
- Sets a new standard
- May cause other countries to accelerate their programs
- The U.S. will now get involved in national building
- Could lead to imperial overstretch
- There is no overall agenda for building peace & stability in the world.
Define Democratic Peace Thesis:
Democracies do not go to war with each other.
U.S. Policy in the 3rd World - Containment Strategy
The policy dated back to the Monroe Docrtine which said any influence into the Western Hemishphere was a danger to our peace and security. The U.S. saw this and knew instability = Soviet expansion. So U.S. tended to support nationalist movement against the communist. They also tended to support the clonial powers but would eventually support a reform to democracy.
What is the concept of the Third World?
It is pre-industrial and has a clonial past. Also whatever was not the west or communist was considered the 3rd world.
Latin America - Guatemala:
1953- Arbenz takes power in military coup. He increases aid with Moscow and they indirectly send aid.
1954- U.S. finds out about military shipments and intercept some. U.S. Support Armas who overthrows gov't, but starts a dictatorship not democracy.
Washington's foreign policy.
He believed in being a Beacon of Democracy. He was a unilateralist who thought we should worry about ourselves for 20 years before we begin to get involved overseas. Thought Europe had too many problems as it was. He was a realist. Looked out for the national interest. Thought people drew gov't's into war.
Latin America - Cuba:
U.S. supports Castro over the pro-U.S. Batista regime.
1958- Castro comes to power
1959- Legalizes communist party
opposition members are executed or imprisioned
puts down U.S.
Nationalizes industry
Cuba takes U.S. money as property
Aligns with U.S.S.R

Eisenhower seens different choices with this problem:
-quarentine Cuba
-curtaial sugar from Cuba
-support opposition groups

Eisenhower decides to cut sugan shipments from Cuba. Crueschev offers security agreement against U.S. and sents arms into Cuba.
Gaddis- 7 lessons of Cold War history
1) The diversification of power did more to shape the course of the cold war than did the balance of power (Culture, moralicy & ideology) -multi-dimensional not multi-polar
2) The U.S & Soviets built empires after WWII but not of the same nature
3) Many people saw the Cold War as a contest of Good vs Evil, but rarely has historians done this
4) Democracy proved superior to autocracy in maintaining coalitions
5) marxism/lenonism during the cold war fostered authoritarian romanticism
6) nuclear weapons exhanged destructiveness for duration
7) As long as Stalin was running the USSR a cold war was inevitable.
Middle East - Suez Canal Crisis:
Nasser the leader of Egypt was trying to get the Aswan Dam built. U.S. offers help but Nasser says he will get a better deal from the Soviets. The U.S. allows Nasser to do this, Nasser doesn't have connections with Soviets so he Nationalizes the Suez Canal Company to pay for the dam. With out U.S. knowledge Britian & France join with Isreal to attack Egypt and for Britian to move back in. Oct 1956- Isreal attacks and France & Britian offer ultimatium and move back in. U.S. doesn't mind this as long as Canal is open but France & Britian want Nasser out while U.S. doesn't & that damages ties. Eisenhower Doctrine is introduced stating Middle East is vital to to U.S. security, & works to keep Soviets out at the price of more pressiing issues.

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