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History 122 Ch 28


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ch 28 New growth patterns were most striking in the South and the West, where inexpensive land, unorganized labor, low taxes, and warm climates beckoned. California grew the most rapidly. _____ were essential to the growth of suburbs and to the development of the Sun Belt, and the 1950's gas guzzling cars became symbols of status and success.
ch 28 Who were the Beats?
A group of writers and poets who were both literary innovators and outspoken social critics. They inspired a new generation of rebels in the 1960s who would champion both cultural and political change.
ch 28 What was the Mattachine Society?
a gay rights organization
ch 28 What was Kennedy's platform when he ran for president?
civil rights legislation, health care for the elderly, aid to education, urban renewal, expanded military & space programs, and containment of communism abroad.
Ch-28 U.S. __________ ___________ and ___________ __________, as well as the absence of major ____________ _________________, were vital factors in extending the global reach of American corporate capitalism, which enjoyed remarkable growth in productivity and profits.
military policy; foreign aid; economic competitors
ch 28 The success of Snick's unorthodoxed tactics encouraged the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), an interracial group founded in 1942, to organize a series of ____ _____ on bus lines in the South to call attention to segregation on public transportation.
Freedom Rides. Attacks on the nonviolent protesters by white mobs and law enforcement officials led the federal government to intervene in order to protect the freedom riders.
Ch-28 Backed by U.S. money and influence, the organizations ______________ ____________ _______ __________ __________ ____________ and __________________ ____________ __________ tended to favor American style internationalism over the economic nationalism traditional in most countries.
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; International Monetary Fund
Ch-28 What was the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development?
Commonly known as the World Bank, it provided private loans for the reconstruction of war torn Europe as well as for the development of Third World countries.
Ch-28 By the end of 1945, war induced prosperity had made the U.S the ___________ __________ in the world, a preeminence that would continue unchallenged for twenty years.
richest country
Ch 28 What were some of the programs produced by the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO)?
Head Start -provided free nursery schools to prepare disadvantaged preschoolers for kindergarten; The Job Corps, Upward Bound, and Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), provided poor youths with training and jobs; and the Community Action Program encouraged the poor to demand maximum feasible participation in decisions that affected them.
Ch 28 what was the purpose of Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, known as "Snick")?
to facilitate student sit-ins/oversee the activities of the student movement.
ch 28 At the end of the war, American public opinion insisted that the proper place for women was in the home. Domesticity flourished in the postwar years, and many women proudly called themselves "housewives." This lifestyle, however, did not apply to poor women, _____, or _____ _____ who had no choice but to work in order to help support their struggling families.
minorities, or recent immigrants
ch 28 Hoping to spread the abundance of a flourishing economy to a greater number of Americans, the Democratic administrations of Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson pressed for the expansion of New Deal _______ _______ ________.
Social welfare programs. Promoting a liberal agenda, they tried to use federal power to ensure the public welfare in areas such as healthcare, education, and civil rights.
Ch-28 How did International Telephone and Telegraph become diversified?
by acquiring companies in unrelated industries, including Sheraton Hotels, Avis Rent a Car, Levitt and Sons home builders, and Hartford Fire Insurance
ch 28 In early 1961, Kennedy attempted to stir up an anti-Castro uprising at _____ ____ ___ ____, but the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-trained invaders were crushed by Castro's troops.
Cuba's Bay of Pigs
ch 28 When Lyndon B. Johnson won the presidency in 1964, he brought to fruition many of Kennedy's stalled programs, and more than a few of his own. Those legislative accomplishments called _______ "________ ________" - fulfilled and in many cases surpassed the New Deal liberal agenda of the 1930s.
Johnson's "Great Society"
ch 28 _____ _____, an administrator with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), helped to organize the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, known as "Snick").
Ella Baker
Ch-28 What does it mean when a company is diversified?
It is a company made up of a combination of unrelated industries, these conglomerates ensure for themselves protection from instability in any single market, making them more effective international competitors.
ch 28 Name some activists (other than Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.) who worked in the civil rights effort.
Baynard Rustin, Roy Wilkins, Ella Baker, Bob Moses, and John Lewis.
Ch-28 What was the International monetary Fund (IMF)?
Designed to stabilize the value of currencies, it helped to guide the world economy after the war.
ch 28 ______ is a health plan for the elderly funded by a surcharge on Social Security payroll taxes; and ________ is a health plan for the poor paid for by general tax revenues.
Medicare & Medicaid
ch 28 As the expectations of the constituencies involved in the War on Poverty grew, conflicts between the communities and traditional power centers contributed to the collapse of the New Deal coalition. The ______ ______ program also was a victim of the war in Vietnam, as resources of the Johnson administration were shifted toward preventing the spread of communism overseas.
Great Society
ch 28 In the six years after Communist Fidel Castro's overthrow of the ___ ____ in 1959, an estimated 180,000 people fled Cuba for the US.
Batista Dictatorship
ch 28 The Kennedy-Johnson tax cut, the _______ _____ _____, marked a milestone in the use of fiscal policy to encourage economic growth, an approach that Republicans and other fiscal conservatives would later embrace.
Tax Reduction Act
ch 28 How did President Kennedy promise to "get America moving again?"
through vigorous governmental activism at home and abroad.
Ch-28 After WWII why was it so easy for American businesses to enter foreign markets?
American business, unlike foreign businesses, emerged from the war physically unscathed. The weakness of the competition enabled American business to enter foreign regions when domestic markets became saturated or when Am. recessions cut into sales.
Ch-28 How did large firms maintain their dominance by ________________.
ch 28 Internal migration from rural areas also brought large numbers of people to the cities, especially African Americans, continuing a trend that had begun during WWI. Although both blacks and whites left the land in large numbers, the starkest decline was among ____ ______.
Black farmers
ch 28 The migration of Black farmers was hastened by the transformation of ___________ ___________, especially by the introduction of innovations like the mechanical cotton picker, which significantly reduced the demand for farm labor.
southern agriculture
ch 28 In 1955, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) and the American Federation of Labor (AFL) merged, creating the AFL-CIO, which represented over 90 percent of America's 17.5 million _____ ______. In exchange for fewer strikes, corporate managers often cooperated with unions, agreeing to contracts that gave workers secure, predictable, and steadily rising incomes.
union members
ch 28 Restrictive Covenant
Limiting clauses in real estate transactions intended to prevent the sale or rental of properties to classes of the population considered "undesirable," such as African Americans, Jews, or Asians. Such clauses were declared unenforceable by the Supreme Court decision in Shelley v Kraemer, but continued to be instituted informally in spite of the ruling.
ch 28 How did the Johnson administration plan to reduce poverty?
The administration expanded social insurance, welfare, and public works programs established by earlier administrations, especially Roosevelt's New Deal. It broadened Social Security to include waiters and waitresses, domestic servants, farm workers, and hospital employees.
ch 28 The Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), established by the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, was the Great Society's showcase in the ___ ___ _____ .
War on Poverty.
ch 28 In a televised address, Kennedy confronted the Soviet Union and announced that the United States would impose a "quarantine on all offensive military equipment" intended for Cuba. After a week of tense negotiations, both Kennedy and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev made concessions: the United States would not invade Cuba, and the Soviets would dismantle their missile bases there. In 1963, the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union agreed to stop testing _____ _____ in the atmosphere, in space, and under water, although underground testing would continue.
nuclear weapons
ch 28 What did the War Brides Act of 1945 permit?
Permitted the entry and naturalization of the wives and children of Americans living abroad (mainly servicemen), brought thousands of new immigrants including some Koreans.
ch 28 Kennedy's greatest priority as president, was
foreign affairs.
Ch-28 American global supremacy rested in part on decisions made at a _______ _________ _____________ held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in July 1944, which established the US dollar as the capitalist world's principal reserve currency.
U.N. economic conference
ch 28 On May 5, 1961, who became the first American in space?
Allan Shepard
ch 28 What was the "kitchen debate"?
While touring the kitchen of a model American home, instead of discussing rockets, submarines and missiles, Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev got into a heated debate about dishwashers, toasters, and televisions. Nixon used the exhibit to assert the superiority of capitalism over communism.
ch 28 Highways were funded by government programs such as the ____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Act of 1956, and air pollution and traffic jams soon became problems in cities. As Americans began to drive to suburban malls, downtown retail economy dried up, helping to precipitate the decay of the central cities.
National Interstate and Defense Highway
ch 28 The Civil Rights Act, narrowly passed in June 1964, was a landmark in the history of American race relations. Its keystone, Title VII, outlawed discrimination in _________ on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex.
Employment. Another section barred discrimination in public accommodations.
ch 28 Flexible Response
A strategy adopted by the Kennedy administration that called for a military establishment that was prepared to fight any foe - large or small, with conventional or nuclear arms - that was seen as a threat to American interests.
ch 28 Counterinsurgency
A military operation using specifically trained forces to defend against guerrilla warfare. The US military created the Green Berets to fight this type of nontraditional warfare, characteristic of the conflict in Vietnam.
ch 28 Urban Renewal
Process by which city planners, politicians, and real estate developers leveled urban tenements and replaced them with modern construction projects in the 1950s and 1960s. High-rise housing projects destroyed community bonds and led to an increase in crime.
ch 28 What ended the exclusion of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Southeast Asian immigrants in the US?
The repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act, in deference to America's wartime alliance with China.
ch 28 Fiscal Policy
The manipulation of govt expenditure and taxation aimed at affecting a nation's allocation of economic resources, the distribution of income, and the level and general growth of economic activity.
ch 28 Why did the Soviets build the Berlin Wall?
to stop the exodus of East Germans. Two years later, American reconnaissance planes flying over Cuba photographed Soviet-built bases for intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs).
ch 28 What was one of the gravest failures of the Kennedy Administration?
its reluctance to act on civil rights.
ch 28 Until it was dismantled in 1989, the Berlin Wall remained the supreme symbol of the _________ _________.
Cold War
ch 28 A civil rights campaign known as "___ ___" established freedom schools, conducted a major voter registration drive, and organized the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. During the summer of 1964, fifteen civil rights workers were murdered in campaigns to register black voters. Civil rights activists near Selma, Alabama, were seen on the news being attacked by white authorities. Johnson redoubled his efforts to get pending voting-rights legislation passed. The government responded with the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which removed legal obstacles to blacks registering to vote. By the 1970s, the increasing number of registered African Americans had become major participants in southern politics.
"Freedom Summer"
ch 28 Fidel Castro overthrew Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959. Cuban relations with Washington deteriorated after Castro nationalized American-owned banks and industries, to which the United States responded with an embargo on Cuban exports. Isolated by the United States, Cuba turned to the ___ ___ for economic and military support.
Soviet Union
ch 28 What agencies did many Americans use to finance homes in the early 1960s?
with mortgages from the Federal Housing Administration and the Veterans Administration.

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