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American History 1920-1940 Twenties and Great Depression


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Secretary of Commerce for both Harding and Coolidge, elected President in 1928. Served when the Great Depression began with the 1929 stock market crash
Herbert Hoover
US General who used the Army to force the Bonus Army to move from Washington, DC
Douglas MacArthur
Visited the Second Bonus March on Washington and remarked on their politeness, soothing fears of the new "radical" Roosevelt administration
Eleanor Roosevelt
Depression photographer whose photos of despair and poverty inspired "The Grapes of Wrath"
Dorothea Lange
Director of the New Deal's Federal Emergency Relief Administration which provided funds to relief agencies ($5 million in 2 hours)
Harry Hopkins
Developed the Empire State Building, wrote article "Everybody Ought to be Rich" promoting savings
John J Raskob
Democratic Presidential candidate in 1932, pledged "New Deal" for America
Franklin D Roosevelt
FDR's Secretary of the Interior
Harold Ickes
Wrote "The Man Nobody Knows," a portrayl of the life of Jesus in business terms
Bruce Barton
FDR's Secretary of Labor, first woman in executive cabinet
Frances Perkins
Appointed Director of Division of Negro Affairs, she helped to increase African-American support of the New Deal
Mary McLeod Bethune
FDR's Republican opponent in 1936 (his second term); presidential loser
Alfred Landon
The monetary value of American stocks in October 1929, before the Great Crash
$87 billion
Passed in 1933, repealed Prohibition
21st Amendment
Years considered to be during the Great Depression
1929 - 1941
1930 import tax passed to protect American industry; highest in peacetime history
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
The term FDR used for radio brodcasts in which he spoke to inform and reassure Americans
Fireside Chats
Name given to FDR's first few months as President, during which he pushed an aggressive program of relief and recovery
The Hundred Days
Practice of buying stocks for a fraction of their value and borrowing the rest; one cause of the Great Crash
Buying "on margin"
New Deal agency established to insure bank deposits up to $5000
(FDIC) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Congressional legislation designed to increase prices on farm products
McNary-Haugen Bill
City in Alabama in which 9 black youths were arrested for raping 2 white women on a train; their conviction caused complaints of discrimination from many groups
Hoover's 1932 Agency that loaned money to banks, which would then loan to people; later loaned to states for unemployment relief
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
1930's political party with 14000 members (labor organizers and intellectuals), called for radical action for fairer distribution of wealth
Causes of the Depression (5 listed)
- Inflated stock values caused overspeculation
- Falling prices for farm goods kept farmers from paying off debt
- Increased American consumer debt
- Overproduction of industrial and agricultural products
- Lack of concern for economy by Republican presidents
Worst day of the Great Crash (although not the first nor last)
"Black Tuesday" October 29, 1929
Drought-induced phenomenon over the Great Plains, especially Kansas; characterized by clouds of dirt blown around
The Dust Bowl
Focus of FDR's Second New Deal (1935 - 1938)
(Relief) Direct relief for ordinary Americans with social welfare benefits and for farmers
Focus of FDR's First New Deal (1933 - 1935)
(Reform, Recovery) Restoring the economy to pre-Depression levels, regulation of Wall Street, bank deposit insurance, labor unions; deficit spending paid for all of this
FDR's proposed but rejected bill to add a Supreme Court Justice for each existing Justice over 70 (1937)
The Court-Packing Bill
Foreign Policy that ended trade with Japan after Japan attacked Manchuria in China (1931)
Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
Hoover's Secretary of the Treasury, promoted Republican Lasseiz-Faire, saying not to worry about national debt
Andrew Mellon
Event in which 20000 WWI veterants march to Washington, DC because they're not getting pension
The Bonus Army March (Bonus Expeditionary Force)
Depression unemployment rates (average and worst)
Average: 25% unemployed
Worst: 33% unemployed
Republican President who died in San Francisco before the end of his first term, succeeded by his VP, Coolidge (1923)
Warren G. Harding
Series of Socialist crackdowns named after Wilson's Attorney General, whose men had thousands of foreigners (mostly Russians) brutally deported, arrested, or lynched (1918 - 1921)
Palmer Raids
In 1921, restricted the immigration from any given country to 3% of its 1910 population
Emergency Quota Act
Coolidges's Vice President
Charles Dawes
FDR's first Vice President
John Garner
Gangster who made a fortune bootlegging during Prohibition
Alphonse Capone aka Scarface
Vastly improved industry, making all products identical
Mass Production (specifically the assembly line)
New Deal policy that sent funds to agencies to relieve poverty; basically welfare, run by Harry Hopkins of "Brain Trust"
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
New Deal policy that recruited single men 18-25 to work in countryside, building reservoirs, watersheds, dams, parks, forests; only paid $1 a day, but gave free food and board
Civilian Conservation Corps
New Deal Policy meant to restore employment by imposing minimum wage and workday limits, but declared unconstitutional
(NRA) National Industrial Recovery Act
New Deal organization that built bridges, dams, and low-cost housing, providing jobs
Public Works Administration
New Deal organization that made low-interest loans to homeowners to pay off mortgages and home improvement
(HOLC) Homeowners' Loan Corporation
New Deal policy that paid farmers to take acreage out of production, declared unconstitutional; lead to FDR's Court packing
Agricultural Adjustment Act
New Deal organization that provided electricity to rural America and subsidized power bills
Rural Electrification Administration
New Deal event; flooded TN River to build dams for hydroelectricity, bought lots of private land under the name of the 5th Amendment
Tennessee Valley Authority
New Deal policy meant to regulate Stock Market; prevents buying on margin, falsified information, insider trading
Securities and Exchange Commission
New Deal policy that built schools, airports, roads; supported culture and the arts
Works Progress Administration
Replaced National Industrial Recovery Act, supporting labor unions and collective bargaining
Wagner Act
New Deal policy that taxed paychecks to save for unemployment
Social Security Act aka Federal Insurance Contribution Act
New Deal policy that created parity, which guaranteed farmers at least the average price of a crop over the past 10 years
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
New Deal policy meant to ban racial discrimination, although due to rampant racism was only able to ban it in government contracts
Fair Employment Practices Commission
Strongest opposers of the New Deal; thought it was Communist and limited individual freedom
American Liberty League
Radicals who thought the New Deal should go further
Progressives, Socialists
The "Radio Priest" who at first supported the New Deal, but later denounced government control of anything
Charles E Coughlin
Supported FDR but not the New Deal; used his popularity to push for his "Share the Wealth" policy
Huey Long
An economic collapse late in the Depression that was caused by the new Social Security Tax
Recession of 1937
President of United Mine Workers, created Committee for Industrial Organization to help American Federation of Labor draw together unskilled workers; promoted sit-down strikes and fought for better workplace conditions
John L Lewis
The "Three R's" of FDR's New Deal
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Name for FDR's personal advisors for the New Deal, most from Columbia University
The "Brain Trust"
Four things that distinguished Communism in the USSR
The government:
- owned all property
- was ruled by one party
- vowed to spread Communism
- respected no individual rights
Supreme Court case in which the defendant was convicted of espionage after sending letters discouraging draftees from reporting (1919)
Schenck v USA
Two Italian immigrants that were arrested on counts of murder and eventually executed without a fair trial; raised lots of protest
Sacco and Vanzetti
Police strike of 1919 that led to huge riots all through this city, ended by National Guard
Boston Police Strike of 1919
Presidents from the 1920's through the Depression
Warren G Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, Fraklin Delano Roosevelt
Scandalous 1920's President who opposed immigration and competition with American industry
Warren G Harding
Scandal in which Albert B Fall illegally sold oil drilling rights to private companies
Teapot Dome Scandal
New payment method of the 1920's that involved paying in small increments over a long time, resulted in consumer debt
Installment Plan
Known for first mass-producing the automobile, making it affordable and commonplace
Henry Ford
Girls with a short dress, tight clothes, slim figure, and boyish attitude (1920's fad)
First Congresswoman
Jeannette Rankin
First female Governor (2 simultaneous)
Miriam Ferguson, Nellie T. Rose
General movement of African-Americans northward due to Jim Crow laws and lack of opportunity in the south (1920's)
The Great Migration
Popular new music genre in the 1920's, including George Gershwin, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and the Jelly Roll Morton Band
1920's literary movement focusing on black struggles, including Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, and James Weldon Johnson
The Harlem Renaissance
Revivalist fundamentalist preacher with 100 million followers
Billy Sunday
Trial in which two brilliant lawyers, Darrow and Bryan, defended evolution and creationism, respectively
The Scopes Trial

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