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Behavior Analysis Unit 3


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Differential reinforcement
when behavior comes under better control. Some behaviors are strengthened while others are weakened (discrimination).
Shaping uses ____________.
differential reinforcement... it refines responses until the desired response is obtained.
Hefferline and Keenan
attached electrodes to 6 regions of the body (including left petellar thumb). With EMG (electromyograph they measured baseline readings in the thumb and reinforced only those that produced high strength. subjects were aware of when they were being rewarded and contigent behavior increased until 10 minutes w/o reinforcement caused levels to return to baseline.
The spread of responses similar to the target response.
In the Hefferline and Keenan the subjects (did/did not) know what behavior was being reinforced
DID NOT KNOW... they thought they knew but they didnt.


Therefore, the subjects learned UNCONSCIOUSLY.
Shaping (defined or otherwise known as)
Differential reinforcement of successive approximations.
Shaping is a balance of...
reinforcement (for good approximations toward target behavior)


extiction (for bad approximations we wish to get rid of)
Consequential behavior
Arranging a contingent "if-then" relation between behavior and a stimulus which comes AFTER IT.
Behavior which is modified by its consequences
Operant conditioning
Compare and contrast Operant and Respondent conditioning
Both are methods of learning by association.

In respondent conditioning behavior is ELICITED by the pairing of stimuli to elicit a response.

In operant conditioning relationships are strenghtened or weakened depending on the consequence of the behavior.
Name major differences between operant and respondent
Operant behavior is emitted; respondent is elicited.

Operant behavior is dependent on its consequence for learning to take place. Respondednt is dependent upon presentation of the stimulus.

To condition with opeant behavior must already be present and shaping resumes.
Reinforcing Consequence
any event which INCREASE the subsequent likelihood of the behavior that follows.
ReinforcER and ReinforceMENT (example)
Reiforcer the event and the Reinforcement the process.

A thirsty dog encounters a watering hole will return to the hole.

Reinforcer- water
Reinforcement- the process by which the water reinfoces returning to the watering hole.
Does a reinforcement explain why a reinforcer is reinforcing?
NO; a reinforcement does NOT explain why a particular reinforcer is reinforcing.
Punishing Consequence
Any event which DECREASES the subsequent likelihood of the behavior it follows.
Identify the Punisher and the Punishment.

A young chuld who experiences a painful burn while touching a hot stove will refrain from touching hot stoves in the future.
Punisher: Hot stove
Punishment: process by which the hot stove suppresses the behavior of touching it can be called punishment.
No such thing as a universal reinforcer or punishment, why?
One can only tell whether an event is reinforcing or punishing by observing its effects on behavior.
ABC's of Operant conditioning
Antecedent Stimulus (environemntal)
Antecendent stimulus is...
a discriminative stimulus that EMITS a behavior that will later be conditioned by consequence (microwave beep)
Does antecendent stimulus mean that all conditioning is basically respondent since something STILL comes before behavior?
NO; the antecdent stimulus provides an occasion for which opening the microwave door will now produce a consequence (reinforcer or punisher).
Reinforcement schedules can be traced back to the work of
B.F Skinner (1930's)
What is the utility of reinforcement schedules?
the utility lies mainly in their ability to produce orderly and predictable patterns of behavior across a variety of different circumstances.
2 ways that schedules of reinforcement have been used (give examples)
Schedule as baselines (drugs, toxins)

Schedules as independent variables (does one influence behavior more than the others?)
Procedural vs. fxnal definition of schedules of reinforcement
Procedural: description og the contingency (every two responses will produce a reinforcement)

Functional- description of the behavior patterns produced by contact with the schedule. (?)
Most common units for schedule of performance is:
responses/ time
Tool useful in the recording of behavior
Cummulative recorder
Schedules can either be fixed or variable. contrast.
Fixed- requirements for reinforcement stay the same

Variable- requirements for reinforcement change from response to response.
Schedules can either be ratio or interval.
Ratio- reinforcement ensues after a select number of completed responses

Interval- reinforcement can be given after the 1st response after a given time or at an avg of the 50th response.
The "pay out" of money on the slot/poker machines/"one armed bandits" on which people gamble at casinos.
Variable Interval
Every time Antonio, a student with autism, says his name and address when prompted to do so by the teacher, he is given his favorite reinforcement; a rasin
Fixed Ratio
Tasha, a young woman with moderate mental retardation, is given a "credit" (equal to $1)for every 100 labels she glues to bottles in the sheltered workshop setting.
Fixed ratio
A teacher ignores Tim's "calling out" of the answers almost every time.
variable ratio
A bell goes off at random times in the classroom. Tina is rewarded if she is "on task".
Variable ratio
differential reinforcement`
involves reinforcing behavior in one situation (discriminative stimulus, Sd) and not in others (S delta).
Four basic contigencies:
Positive Reinforcement- presenting something likable

Negative reinforcement- removal of something aversive

Positive Punishment- presentation of something aversive

Negative Punishment- removal of something likable
A general belief about reinforcement and motivation/creativity
The contention is that reinforcement reduces people's intrinsic motivation and creativity.

Research has suggested however that there is no inherent negative property of rewards.
Premack Principle
A way to identify a positive reinforcer. this principle states that a higher frequency behavior will function as reinforcement for a lower frequency behavior.
Free operant method
The rate of response is PURELY at the discretion of the subject. Thus any changes in rate of response is due to consequences.
Operant chamber
Setting for where the experiment is to take place. Alot of work goes into making sure the desired behavior can be observed and incompatible behavior is reduced.
Deprivation operation
Where daily food rations are cut so that food PRESUMABLY becomes a reinforcer. (recall a reinforcer is only a reinforcER if it increases the likelihood of the behavior of interest).
Magazine training
Where the sound of the feeder before it feeds the rat, becomes a conditioned reinforcer. (warns of upcomming food)
Operant class
synonimous to response class in respondent conditioning.

Any of the many ways to perform "the operant" that get reinforced (pushing lever with hand, leg, nose)
Continuous reinforcement (CRF)
When each response generates reinforcement.
In a model experiment, the response/time should _________ and then ___________ a process called.
It should increase as the animal learns the association and then level off as the animal reaches SATIATION.
the rate of response declines because repeated presentations of the reinforcer weaken its effectiveness.
The process of withholding reinforcement for previously reinforced responses.
Behavior effects of extinction (5)
Extinction burst, Operant variability, force of response, emotional responses, discriminated extinction.
Extinction burst
the point that there is an increase in the rate of response, when reinforcement has just been withdrawn.
Operant variability
operant behavior becomes increasingly variable as extinction proceeds
Research of reinforcement ant and problem solving/creativity
Schwartz concluded that reinforcement interfered with problems solving, because ir produced sterotyped response patterns.
Force of response
response differentiation. during extinction rats varried widely in their strength of pressing the lever.
emotional resonses
responses not only grow in frequency but in usually agression.
discriminated extinction
this is when unwanted behaviors are extinct by not reinforcing them.
Partial reinforcement effect
Extinction becomes more difficult when an intermittent schedule of reinforcement was used to establish the operant.
Spontaneous recovery
after a session of extinction the rate of response may be close to operant level when the animal again begins to respond.
Extinction and forgetting
In order to be considered extinction, the organism must still remember. in other words extinction only occurs when the oppurtunity to emit the operant remains available but is not done.
The term operant comes from the verb _________ and refers to behavior that _______________.
operates; operates on the environment to produce effects
What defines a contigency of reinforcement?
Discriminative stimulus, Operant and reinforcement
Which of the folowing is not one of the 4 basic contigencies:

Positive reinforcement
Positive extinction
Negative reinforcement
Negative Punishment
Positive Extinction
In terms of rewards and intrinsic motivation, Cameron et al. conducted a statistical procedure called ___________________ and one of the findings indicated that verbal rewards ____________ performace and interests on tasks
meta analysis, increased
The Premack Principle states that a higher frequency behavior will ____________
reinforce a lower frequency behavior.
In order to experimentally study the probability of response, a researcher uses ___________ as the basic measure (unit) and follows the __________________ method
operant rate; free operant
Shaping of behavior involves...
reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the final desired performance.
A classic experiment performed by Antonitis (1951) involved...
Nose poking by rats for food

photographs of the rat's positons and body angles.

increased variability of nose poking during extinction
in terms of response stereotypes, variability, and reinforcement, the work by Schwartz shows that reinforcement can produce ___________ patterns of behavior, whereas the work of Neuringer and his colleagues indicates that reinforcement can produce ______
Stereotyped; response variability
Which of the following are involved in the partial reinforcement effect (CRF)
longer extinction on intermittenet reinforcement schedules

the higher the rate of reinforcement the greater the resistance to change.

discrimination between reinforcement and extinction is more rapid on CRF.
behavioral momentum
refers to behavior persisting in the presence of a particular stimulus despite disruptive factors.
research has shown that as the pattern of reinforcement goes up, variability...
goes down.
Ratio schedules
are response base; that is, these schedules deliver reinforcement following a prescribed number of responses.
Interval schedule
pay off when one response is made after some amount of time has passed.
Fixed schedules
set up reinforcement after a fixed number of responses
Variable schedule
response and time requirements vary from one reinforcer to the next.
Continuous reinforcement is an example of...
FR1 - fixed ratio. where after 1 (each) response the subject is reinforced.
Postreinforcement pause (PRP) is common in which of the schedules of reinforcement and define it.
PRP is not because the animal is consuming its reinforcement it is because of UPCOMMING RATIO REQUIREMENT.
The PRP pause is referred to as
Preratio pause
Variable ratio
Similar to fixed ratio except that the number of responses required for reinforcement may change.
fixed interval
where an operant is reinforced after a fixed amount of time has elapsed and the behavior is repeated.
variable schedules generally
produce a higher rate of response because they eliminate the PRP and because there is NO predictability.
Pattern of response in fixed interval
Generally alot more responses are given than needed. There is a pause after reinforcement, then a few probe responses, followed by more and more rapid responding as the interval times out.
Assumption of generality
the assumption that the schedules of reinforcement will produce similar rates of reaction in all species~ NOT TRUE. Verbal abilities OR history with contingent behaviors gives adult humans an advantage. SELF INSTRUCTION...!!!
Variable interval
Where reinforcement occurs after a VARIABLE amount of TIME.
rate of response in variable interval and its use.
The pattern of response is moderate and steady and it is therefore used as a basline for independent variables.
Once behavior has stabilized, the organisms behavior is said to have reached a...
steady state
when an organism is initally placed on a scheduled of reinforcement, typically behavioral patterns are not consistent... this is called a...
transition state
longer pauses after reinforcement (PRP) as a result of increased time between successive reinforcements
Ratio strain
When an organism changes its behavior on the basis of life experience (learning) this is called...
ontogenetic selection
Best way to stop smoking...
A progressive reinforcement scale where reinforcement builds on previous reinforcements. (3.00 for the first day and 1.00 more each day it does not occur + 3.00 originally).`
Infrequent reinforcement generates responding that is persistent and is called the...
partial reinforcement effect
Mechner notation describes
independent variables
Resurgence happens when behavior is..
put on extinction
schedule that generates a step like pattern of response
fixed ratio
Variable ratio schedule generates...
high rates of response
Fixed interval schedules give response curves that are...
Human performance on FI varies from other organisms in that...
humans can self-instruct themselves also they may have an advantage b/c of previous exposure to such contingent relations.
behavior is said to be in transition when it is between
stable states.
Molecular vs Molar accounts of schedule performance
Molecular- focuses on small momment-to-momment relationships between behavior and its consequences.

Molar accounts of schedule performance are concearned with large scale factors that may occur over the length of an entire session.

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