This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Biology Genetics Vocabulary

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
Genetics
the study of heredity
Heredity
the passing of charactersitics from parents offspring
Traits
are specific inherited characteristics that vary from one indivial to another
Gene
a section of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a trait
Allele
a distinct form of a gene:usually two per trait(one from each parent)
Dominant Allele
a gene that is fully expressed even when two differet alleles are present
EX:GG or Gg both show a green pea
Recessive Allele
a gene that is expressed only when paired with another recessive allele;when paired with a dominant allele,the recessive trait is not expressed
EX:gg will show a yellow pea
Purebred
an organism that received the same form of a genetic trait from each parent
EX:green pea plant X green pea plant (GG X GG gives GG offspring)
Hybrid
an organism that recieved different forms of a genetic trait from each parent
EX:green pea plant X yellow pea plant (GG X gg gives Gg offspring)
Punnett Square
used to predict and compare the genetics variations that will result from a cross
Monohybrid Cross
a cross that involes only one pair of genetic traits
Dihybrid Cross
a cross that involves two pairs of genetic traits
Genotype
the genetic make-up of an organism
EX:GG or gg
Phenotype
the physical expression of a trait
EX:GG=green,Gg=green,gg-yellow
Homozygous
when both alleles for a trait are the same~purebred
Heterozygous
when the alleles for a trait are different~hybrid
Incomplete dominance
when two different alleles for the same trait combine but neither allele wins expression over the other;the heterozygous expression is somewhere between the homozygous expressions
EX:snap dragon plant (homzygouos red X homosygous white=pink offspring
Co-dominance
both alleles express themselves fully
EX:human bloodor white/black feathers on chickens
Multiple alleles
when genes have 3 or more alleles available in the population;an indiviual will still only carry 2 (on from each parents)
EX:human blood or rabbit fur color
Polygenic traits
a trait controlled by two or more genes
EX:eye color or skin color-determained by distribution of pigment and tone amount
Pleiotropy
when a single gene affects more than one trait
EX:sickle cell diesase(causes anemia,heart damage,physical weakness)
Pedigree
a chat that shows a trait and how it is inherited within a family;helps to predict certain alleles in offspring
Carrier
a person that carries a recessive gene that is not expresed;heterozygous recessive
Sex-linked
genes found in either X or Y sex chromosomes
EX:Red/Green Colorblindness is X-linked reccsive
Hemophilia(absence of normal clotting factor blood)is X linked recesive
Sex limited Traits
are expressed only in the presence of sex hormones and are only obseved in one sex or the other;are located on autosomes;typically do not appear until puberty when sex hormones are produced
EX:bright plumage in male birds;beards in men;milk production in females

Deck Info

25

permalink