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Biology Genetics Vocabulary


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the study of heredity
the passing of charactersitics from parents offspring
are specific inherited characteristics that vary from one indivial to another
a section of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a trait
a distinct form of a gene:usually two per trait(one from each parent)
Dominant Allele
a gene that is fully expressed even when two differet alleles are present
EX:GG or Gg both show a green pea
Recessive Allele
a gene that is expressed only when paired with another recessive allele;when paired with a dominant allele,the recessive trait is not expressed
EX:gg will show a yellow pea
an organism that received the same form of a genetic trait from each parent
EX:green pea plant X green pea plant (GG X GG gives GG offspring)
an organism that recieved different forms of a genetic trait from each parent
EX:green pea plant X yellow pea plant (GG X gg gives Gg offspring)
Punnett Square
used to predict and compare the genetics variations that will result from a cross
Monohybrid Cross
a cross that involes only one pair of genetic traits
Dihybrid Cross
a cross that involves two pairs of genetic traits
the genetic make-up of an organism
EX:GG or gg
the physical expression of a trait
when both alleles for a trait are the same~purebred
when the alleles for a trait are different~hybrid
Incomplete dominance
when two different alleles for the same trait combine but neither allele wins expression over the other;the heterozygous expression is somewhere between the homozygous expressions
EX:snap dragon plant (homzygouos red X homosygous white=pink offspring
both alleles express themselves fully
EX:human bloodor white/black feathers on chickens
Multiple alleles
when genes have 3 or more alleles available in the population;an indiviual will still only carry 2 (on from each parents)
EX:human blood or rabbit fur color
Polygenic traits
a trait controlled by two or more genes
EX:eye color or skin color-determained by distribution of pigment and tone amount
when a single gene affects more than one trait
EX:sickle cell diesase(causes anemia,heart damage,physical weakness)
a chat that shows a trait and how it is inherited within a family;helps to predict certain alleles in offspring
a person that carries a recessive gene that is not expresed;heterozygous recessive
genes found in either X or Y sex chromosomes
EX:Red/Green Colorblindness is X-linked reccsive
Hemophilia(absence of normal clotting factor blood)is X linked recesive
Sex limited Traits
are expressed only in the presence of sex hormones and are only obseved in one sex or the other;are located on autosomes;typically do not appear until puberty when sex hormones are produced
EX:bright plumage in male birds;beards in men;milk production in females

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