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Psychology Ch.7 Vocab


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The mental activities involved in aqcuiring, retaining, and using knowledge.
The manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions.
A mental representation of objects or events tha are not physically present.
mental image
A mental category of objects or ideas based on properties they share.
A mental category that is formed by learning the rules of features that define it.
formal concept
A mental category that is formed as a result of everyday experience.
natural concept
The most typical instance of a particular concept.
Individual instances of a concept or category, held in memory.
Thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available.
problem solving
A problem-solving strategy that involves attempting attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work.
trial and error
A problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure or method that inevitably produces the cirrect solution.
A problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions.
The sudden realization of how a problem can be solved.
Coming to a conclusion or making a judgement without conscious awareness of the thought processes involved.
The tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual or customary way.
functional fixedness
The tendency to persist in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past.
mental set
A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated on the basis of how readily available other instances of the event are in memory.
availability heuristic
A srategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated by comparing how similar it is to the prototype of the event.
representativeness heuristic
A system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements.
The hypothesis that differences among languages cause differences in the thoughts of their speakers.
linguistic relativity hypothesis
The study of animal learning, memory, thinking, and language
animal cognition

also called
comparative cognition
The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.
A measurement of intelligence in which an individual's mental level is expressed in terms of the average abilities of a given age group.
mental age
A measure of general intelligence derived by comparing an individual's score with the scores of others in the same age group.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
A test designed to measure a person's level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular area.
achievement test
A test designed to assess a person's capacity to benefit from education or training.
aptitude test
The administration of a test the a large, representative sample of people under uniform conditions for the purpose of establishing norms.
A bell-shaped distributioin of individual differences in a normal populationin which the most scores cluster around the average score.
normal curve


normal distribution
The ability of a test to produce consistent results when administered on repeated occasions under similar conditions.
The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure.
The notion of a general intelligence factor that is responsible for a person's overall performace on tests of mental ability.
_g_ factor


general intelligence
Sternberg's theory that there are three distinct forms of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical.
triarchic theory of intelligence
The percentage of variation within a given population that is due to heredity.
A psychological predicament in which fear that you will be evaluated in terms of a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong creates anxiety and self-doubt, lowering performance in a particular domain that is important to you.
stereotype threat
A group of cognitive processes used to generate useful, original, and novel ideas or solutions to problems.

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