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genetic vocab

Terms

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Sexual reproduction
pattern of reproduction that involves the production of subsequent fusion of haploid cells.
Genetic recombination
major source of genetic variation among organisms caused by re-assortment or crossing over during meiosis
Crossing over
exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids from homologous chromosome during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations
Law of segregation
Mendelian principal explaining that because each plant has two different alleles, it can produce two different types of gametes.
Gamete
male and female sex cells, sperm and eggs
Homozygous
there are two identical alleles for a trait
Dominant
trait of an organism that mask the recessive form of a trait
Haploid
cell with one of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a haploid or n, number of chromosomes.
Meiosis
type of cell division where one body cell produces for gametes, each containing half the number of chromosomes in a parent's body
Genotype
combination of genes in an organism
Egg
haploid female sex cell produced by meiosis
Fertilization
fusion of male and female gametes
Trait
characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive
Nondisjunction
failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis; results in gametes with too many or too few chromosomes
Allele
alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism
Recessive
trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait
Law of independent assortment
Mendelian principal stating that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.
Pollination
transfer of male pollen grains to the pistil of a flower
Homologous chromosome
paired chromosomes with genes fro the same traits arranged in the same order.
Phenotype
outward appearance of an organism, regardless of its genes
Diploid
cell with two of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a diploid, or 2n, number of chromosomes
Heredity
passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
Hybrid
offspring formed by parents having different forms of a specific trait.
Heterozygous
when there are two different alleles for a trait
Genetics
branch of biology that studies heredity

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