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Anthropology 344: The First Americans


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The apaches and navahos, as speakers of athabascan languages, originated in the subartic of western canada and only recently arrived in the southwest on the pueblo fronteir. T or F.
Large towns consisting of multi-storied room blocks arranged around plazas, towers permitting communication over long distances, water-control technology, and an extensive road system together define the "Chacoan phenomenon" which is associated
The periodic appearance of a land bridge linking Siberia and northwesern N.America at the Bering strait is believed by most arcaeologists to have provided the route for waves of immigrants entering the new world. true or false?
For most of the 20th century, the First Americans have been identified with the predatory activities of Ice Age hunters known as clovis man. true or false.
the southwestern anasazi tradition is ancestral to the ____________.
pueblo groups residing along the rio grande in new mexico and the hopi indians of arizona.
the periodicity, extend and intesity of human occupation of the great plains of north america prior to the arrival of agriculture in the first millennium of the christian era reflects on the availability and abundance of bison. T or F
"were the denali complex in alaska and the dyuktai tradition in siberia not separated by the bering strait, i would regard them as one in the same culture." Who said this?
yuri mochanov
the diversity manifest in paleo indian site locations across north america, such as the recently discovered topper and cactus hill sites in the southeast and long reconized kill sites of the southwest and great plains, reflects versatile groups capable o
A great abundance of human skeletal remains exists for groups entering the new world during the late pleistocene / early holocene. true or false.
when discovered in 1926, this site provided the first unquestionable evidence of human population in the new world at the end of the ice age.
folsom, NM
the olsen-chubbuck site in colorado documents exploitation of a large bison herd about 10000 years ago and is often cited as "pleistocene overkill". Suggesting humans were responsible for the extinction of the ice age megafauna. T or F
matrilineal societies like the hopi indians trance descent through the female side of the family . T or F
Meadowcroft rockshelter in western pennsylvania, excavated by james adovasio during the 1970s, remains a viable candidate for pre clovis status amoung sites in north america. T or F
while clovis hunters exploited a number of different ice age beasts, their principal prey was the ________.
generally speaking, the ability to move is the first and decisive aspect of the hunting and gathering or foraging way of life. true or false.
who wrote Arcchaeology of the US in 1856
samuel haven
Lehner ranch in arizona is a clovis kill site. This and other similar sites in the west consistently date to about 10,900-11,600 radiocarbon years ago. T or F.
what might you regard as an archaic respose to the end of the ice age and pleistocene extinctions
seed collecting, small mammal harvesting, fishing and shellfishing
who discovered and excavated monte verde, chilie
tom dillehay
what tradition occurs in the desert country of south central arizona where controlling the flow of water was essential to survival?
What is included in "the triad" of native north american agriculture?
squash, corn, common bean
The great plains culture area was uninhabitable until the reintroduction of the horse into this region in the 16th century. T or F
Seasonality and scheduling are regulatory mechanisms inflencing hunter gatherer or forager decisions regarding the harvesting of resources in nature. true or false
once hunter gatherers cross the threshold to food production, wild food harvesting ceases to be an important economic activity. T or F
The archaeological site of casas grande in northern mexico may have functioned as a "gateway city", promoting interaction between mesoamerica and the greater southwest in prehistory. T or F
hunting and gathering societies span virtually all of human history. T or F
who is the investigator of kennewick man
jim chatters
all archaeologists reject movement of early human population along the pacific coast as an alternative to the ice free corridor. T or F
most of what we've learned over time about paleo indian lifeways has been recovered from ________ sites.
what site is now regarded as having established the presence of pre clovis populations in the new world
monte verde, chile
In conjunction with the existence of a land bridge between asia and n.america, many archaeologists have also argued for the periodic opening of an ice free corridor to allow movement from alaska to areas south of the wisconsin ice sheet. T or F.
this tradition demonstrates the greatest mix of farming, hunting, and gathering in its subsistence strategy
the presence of many dry cave sites affording excellent preservation of organic materials was of critical importance for the tehuacan project in mexico, with its empasis on the search for the orgins of corn agriculture. T or F.
who argues that without systematic study of all sorts of landscapes we cannot dismiss the possibility of pre clovis groups in the US
david meltzer
this archaeologist, toghether with bruce bradley, has recently suggested that we cannot overlook europe in the original peopling of the new world.
dennis stanford
for the transition from foraging to farming to take place, plants (animals) representing potential domesticates must be available in nature. T or F
The clovis fluted point is an american invention which diffused throughout the continent as an idea. name who supports this.
dennis stanford
whereas the earliest domesticated corn from tehuacan dates to 7,200 years ago, sites which migh represent agricultural villages do not appear for another 3,000 years, or about 4,400 years ago. T or F
who is the director of the tehuacan archaeological and botanical project in mexico
richard macneish
who brought the story of the "seven cities of gold" to the attention of the viceroy of new spain and thereby initiated spanish interest in the southwest?
francisco coronado
while forager societies may evidence strategies for survival that yield comparatively low levels of energy, their tactics are often very ingenious in concept. T or F.
archaeological evidence gathered to date supports the proposition that the anasazi abandonment of the four corners was due to arrival of warlike nomads (southern athabaskans) from the north. T or F
The time period following the end of the ice age and preceding the establishment of substantial agricultural communities is called the archaic. true or false.
the dyuktai people of siberia, as hunters of the great ice age beasts, possessed a technology and pursued an adaptive strategy that could identify them as progenitors of the first americans. T or F
which of the southwestern farming traditions interacted most intensively with the high cultures of mesoamerica (mexico), as indicated by their architecture, ceremonial games, artifact types and artistic designs and motifs.
Spiral fractured bones, as a possible product of marrow extraction by big game hunters during the pleistocene, is most closely associated with what site?
old crow flats, northern yukon territory
While paleo indian adaptation across n. america has been traditionally presented as very homogeneous, the succeeding archaic stage is heterogeneous, that is , there are many kinds of archaic responses to post pleistocene conditions in n.america. T or F.
characteristic of this tradition are copper bells, acid etched conch shells, iron pyrite mirrors, ceremonial ball courts, and rubble filled substructure mounds at major sites like snaketown.
the presence of grinding stones such as the mano and metate in site assemblages signals the growing importance of plant foods in the diet of archaic foragers in the desert west. T or F
extensive irrigation ditches are a line of evidence suggesting that southwestern hohokam tradition fully committed to corn agriculture. T or F
Who was presented in our videotapes as the "great skeptic" in paleoindian research?
vance haynes
this tradition was the geographically most extensive and centered in the four corners area.
What is the new line of inquiry into the antiquity of humans in the new world presented in the 1992 video "searching for the first americans"
dna research
the principle economic resource for the tlingit of alaska was the __________.
who lead the first major spanish expedition into the american southwest and great plains in 1539?
cabeza de vaca
The sacred ceremonial chamber of the pueblo indians was called ________.
horses that strayed from spanish expeditions entering the southwest and great plains provided the indians with the source of these animals. T or F
today, the old crow data from nothern yukon territory still argues persuasively for the presence of humans in the far north thousands of years before clovis man. T or F
the great plains culture area is characterized by groups of people pursuing two different strategies for survival. both the equestrian nomad and village farming ways of life are prominent in the historic period. T or F
stratified and ranked societies based on heredity and wealth characterize the northwest coast culture area. T or F

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