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Psychology Test #1


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broad group of people who are of interest to researchers
infants who ignore or turn away from their mothers when they are reunited following a brief seperation have this type of attachment relationships
when newborns are in this state, their eyes are open but unfocused, and their arms and legs move in bursts of uncoordinated movements
Waking activity
occur when children appear to wake in a panicked state and are often breathing rapidly and perspiring heavily
Night Terrors
Peoples beliefs about their own abilities or talents. This belief may determine when people will imitate others
based his social cognitive theory on a more complex view of reward, punishment and imitation
Albert Bandura
include all internal, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect development
Biological Forces on development
occurs when new experiences are readily incorporated into existing schemes
a prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from part of the placenta
Chorionic Villus Sampling
infants usethis in an unfaniliar or ambiguous situatuion by looking at their parents as if searching for cues that will help then interpret the situatiobn
Social Referencing
the multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time
Human Development
this cry is a more intense version of a basic cry
Comments that are not intended for other but serve the purpose of hhelping children regulate their behavior
Private Speech
includes physical, behavioral, and psychological features that are the result of the interaction between ones genes and environmental influences
infants who remain upset or angry and are difficult to console when they are reunited with their mothers following a brief separation have this type of attachment relationship
prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from part of the placenta
Chorionic Villus Sampling
issue concerned with whether a particular developmental phenomenon follows a smooth progression throughout the life span or a series of abrupt shifts
refers to a consistent style or pattern to an infants behavior
Interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors that influence development
Developed the five stages of psychosexual development
Sigmund Freud
Occures in individual who have one dominant allele for normal blood cells and one recessive sickle-cell allele. The individuals typically only have problems when they are seriously deprived of oxygen, such as when they engage in vigorous exercise or when they are at high altitudes
Sickle-Cell Trait
the processes of selection, optimization, and compensation form a system that generates and regulates development and aging
Selective optimization with compensation
suggests that many human behaviors represent successful adaptation to the environment
Evolutionary psychology
chemical instructions are ignored when the allele is combined with a dominant allele
Infants who dont seem to understand whats happening when they are separated and subsequently reunited with their mother have this type of attachment relationship
Who came up with the Psychosocial Theory?
Erik Erikson
During this type of sleep, heart rate, breathing, and brain activity are steady, and newborns lie quietly.
Non-REM (regular)
Proposes the human cognition consists of mental hardware and emntal software
Information Processing Theory
Studied operant conditioning
B.F. Skinner
One of the first theories to emphasize the influence of the sociocultural context on development
Vygotski's Sociocultural Theory
the counting priciple that states that there must be one and only one number name for each object counted
the first 22 pairs of chromosomes
occurs when a person starts, fixes his eyes on a stimulus, and shows changes in heart rate and brain wave activity
Orienting response
consists of a group of compounds that provide a specific set of biochemical instruction
a subset of the population of interest
is an enduring social-emotional relationship between an infant and an adult
aging is viewed in the context of the rest of the lifespan
Life-Span perspective
include the interrelations between ones microsystems
Threadlike structures in the nuclei of the sperm and egg that contain genetic material
the knowledge that a young child has that she can act on the world intentionally, which occurs when autonomy, shame, and doubt are in balance
issue that addresses the degree to which genetic influences and environmental influences determines the type of person you are
focuses on the relation between consequences of behavior and the likelihood that the behavior will occur
Operant Conditioning
Eriksons theory that proposes that personality development is the result of the interaction of an internal maturaltional plan and societal demands
the branch of genetics that deals with inheritance of behavioral and psychological traits
Behavioral Genetics
Piagets term for understanding that objects exist independently
Object Permanence
the young childs difficulty in seeing the world from another outlook
an inherited disorder in which babies are born lacking an important liver enzyme
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
suggests that people are actively trying to understand the world through reinforcement, punishment, and imitation
Social Cognitive Theory
a sleep disturbance that occurs during deep sleep when children get out of bed and walk
investigators look at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world
Correlational Study
occurs when schemes are modified based on experience
the difference between what someone can do with assistance and what she can do by herself
Zone of Proximal Development
vivid, frightening dreams that occur toward morning and usually wake a child
people learn much by simply watching those around them
Observational learning
used to organize biological, psychological, and sociocultural influences on development
Biopsychosocial Framework
during this type of sleep an infants eyes will dart rapidly beneath her eyelids, she may move her arms and legs, and she may grimace
REM (irregular)
researcher creates a setting that is particularly likely to elicit the behavior of interest
Structured Observations
means that each psychosocial stage gas its own period of importance
Epigenetic principles
are experienced by people worldwide. the consist of a subjective feeling, a physiological change, and an overt behavior
Basic Emotions
healthy babies die suddenly for no apparent reason
Sudden Infant Death Syndrone (SIDS)
glass covered platform that appears to have a shallow side and a deep side
Kinetic cues
poeple are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation
Naturalistic Observation
social settings that influence ones development even though one does not experience them first hand
Specialized neurons in the back of the eye, along the retina, that sense color
in this state newborns alternate from being still and breathing regularly to moving gently and breathing irregularly
refers to the fact that objects that are close move across our visual fields faster than objects that are in the distance
Visual expansion
is a fatal diseas characterized by the progressive degeneration of the nervous system
Huntingtons Disease
this cry begins wtih a sudden, long burst of crying followed by a long pause and gasping
the smallest pattern that one can distinguish reliably defines visual clarity or this
Visual Acuity
a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future. This could include spanking and withdrawal of privileges
theories that propose that human behavior is guided by motives and drives that are internal and often unconscious
the field of medicine that is concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth
Fetal medicine
when newborns are in this state their eyes are open, they are attentive, and they seem to be deliberately inspecting the environment
Alert inactivity
the view that development is determined by many forces and cannot be understood within a single framework
Life-Span Perspective
a teaching style in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance that they offer to the learners needs
determines which info will be processed further by an individual
occurs when phenotypes are the result of the combined activity of many separate genes
polygenic inheritance
simultaneous presentation of information to different sensory modes
Intersensory Redundancy
differences in how the same event may affect people of different ages
Life-cycle forces
the prenatal diagnostic technique that uses sound waves to generate a picture of the fetus
peoples memory for the significant events and experiences of their own lives
Autobiographical memory
describes the ways in which various generations experience the forces of development in their perspective historical contexts
Life Course Perspective
twins are also called identical twins because they are the result of a single fertilized egg that split in two to form 2 new individuals
Research designs involve testing people of diffeerent ages in a study
the counting principle that states the number names must always be counted in the same order
more complex research designs that are based on cross-sectional and longitudinal approches to research
Sequential Studies
the issue of whether there is one path of development or several
Universal versus contect-specific
occurs around 6 months of age when infants become wary in the presence of an unfamiliar adult
Stranger Wariness
Fraternal twins are the result of the fertilization of 2 seperate eggs by two sperm
According to B. F. Skinner the consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated in the future
Operant conditioning
the process by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, and organizes incoming nerves impulses
occurs when neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally produced by another stimulus
Classical Conditioning
crediting inanimate objects with life and life-like properties
the factor tht is manipulayed by the researcher in the experiment
Independent Variable
a sytematic way of manipulating key factors that a researcher thinks causes a particular behavior
when babies are hungry or tired they often use this type of cry that starts softly and gradually becomes more intense
expresses the strength and direction of a relation between two variables
Correlational Coefficient
Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget
consuming inadequate amounts of folic acid during pregnancy can result in this disorder in which the embryos neural tube does not close properly during prenatal development
Spina bifida
process of recognizing ones schemes to return to a state of equilibrium
around 2 months of age infants smile when they see another human face
Social Smiles
if the alleles in a pair of chromosomes differ from each other
the cue of depth where the texture of near objects is course but distinct and the texture of distant objects is finer and less distinct
Texture Gradient
different forms of genes are called
a tool that allows researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate the relations between variables
when an alleles chemical instructions are followed
unlearned responses that are triggered by specific stimulation
psychological structures that organize experience
includes cultures and subcultures in which the microsystems, mesosystems, and exosystems are embedded
an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
forces withtin a family that make children different from one another
Non-shared environmental enfluences
Focuses on how a developing person if is embedded in a series of interacting systems
Brofenbrenner's Ecological Theory
an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development
the complete set of genes makes up a persons heredity
first of Piagets four stages of cognitive development. This period last from birth to 2 years
a measure is to the extent which it provides a consistent index of characteristics
young children who have this attachment relationship with their mothers will want to be near the mother when they are reunited following a brief separation
often occurs in babies whos mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while they were pregnant with them
Fetal alcohol syndrome
the 23rd pair of chromosomes determines the sex of the child
Sex chromosomes
Learning by simply watching other people
Narrowly focused thought that characterizes preoperational thought
Moral Reasoning Theory
Lawrence Kohlberg
refers to mental and neural structures that are built in and that allow the mind to operate
Mental hardware
human development cannot be separated from the environmental contexts in which a person develops
Ecological theory
involves watching people and carefully recording what they do or say
Systematic Observation
a consequence that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future
if both alleles in a pair of chromosomes are the same
differences between age groups that are the result of environmental events
Cohort Effects
in this state newborns cry vigorously and move in an uncoordinated way
refers to the fact that objects that are close move across our visual fields faster than objects that are in the distance
Motion Parallax
According to this theory, how well people adapt depends on how the match between their abilities and the demands put on them by the environment
Competence-Environmental Press Theory
According to Brofenbrenner, includes the people, such as parents, and objects in ones immediate environment
the process of deliberately seeking environments that are compatible with ones heredity
a rudimentary knowledge of the world that is elaborated based on children experiences
Core knowledge hypothesis
are peoples answers to questions about the topic of interest
Self Reports
the situation where one allele does not completely dominate another
Incomplete Dominance
measure refers to whether it really measure what researchers think it measures
the understanding that the last number name denotes the number of objects one is counting
refers to mental programs that are the basis for performing particular tasks
Mental Software
refers to the fact that numbers can differ in magnitude; some values are greater than others
refers to the fact that a particular genotype can interact with various environments to produce a range of phenotypes
Reaction Range
an openness to new experience tempered by wariness, occurs when trust and mistrust are in balance
A set of expectations about parents availability and responsiveness, generally and in times of stress
Internal Working Model
each chromosome consist of one molecule of...
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
a persons physical and psychological responses to threatening or challenging situations
the behavior observed after the other variables are manipulated
Dependent Variable
Diminished response to a stimulus as it becomes more familiar

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