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Physiological Psychology/Psychopharmacology


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Which of the following has been associated with memory consolidation?
b. Ach
c. RNA
c. RNA. Senile adults have been found to show improvement in memory after the administration of yeast RNA. Research has not always been replicated in humans but is consistent in animal studies.
A temporal lobe tumor may manifest with what symptoms?
Memory impairment, Depression or anxiety, and hallucinations. The Temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and memory. Tumors in the temporal lobe affect memory, produce hallucinations and usually affect mood.
What memories are most likely to return first when retrograde amnesia due to a head injury begins to resolve?
Remote memories begin to return first. Ribot's Law.
In split brain patients an image presented to the left visual field will be processed in which hemisphere?
difficulty carrying out intentional movements. Usually associated with damage to the left hemisphere, especially the left parietal lobe.
What type of memory loss occurs first among individuals with Alzheimer's disease?
Alzheimer's is a progressive disease where anterograde amnesia (the inability to form new memories) is lost first. Then anterograde amnesia gradually worsens and then retrograde amnesia sets in.
James-Lange Theory
Peripheralist theory of emotion. The psychological experience of emotion follows bodily responses to external stimuli.
What symptoms are associated with a frontal lobe tumor?
impaired judgement, increased impulsivity and inappropriate happiness, teasing.
What symptoms are more likely with an occipital lobe tumor?
Confabulation, increased irritability and prosopagnosia.
What gland releases gonadotropic hormones?
Pituitary glands: the gonadotropic hormones cause gonads to release androgens and estrogens.
It is the inability to perform intentional motor movements. Associated with damage in the left hemisphere (mainly parietal lobe)
What changes occur in the sexual response cycle as men age?
Refractory period begins to increase ages 30 to 40. Resolution phase decreases. Rapid loss of erection following orgaism
When do the most severe emotional and physical sx of PMS usually occur?
week before and a few days after menses.
The sx of PMS, irritability temporary weight gain, restlessness and headache are due to?
Decreased hormone levels.
Role of orbitofrontal cortex:
emotional behavior

reduced inhibition


indifference to the consequences of actions

reduced emotional response to unpleasant stimuli
Anterior Cingulate cortex may be associated with?
Emotional reaction to painful stimuli
Anterior occipital lobe mediates?
perpheral vision
What is synesthesia?
A sensation that occurs in one sense modality when another modality has been stimulated.
Difficulties associated with the left posterior parietal lobe...
Cannot pantomime motor movements but less difficulty performing movements with the actual objects.
Transortical aphasia
Occurs when mjr speech areas in the left temporal lobe become isolated from other cortical areas (seconday to lack of blood suppy)

Unable to describe what he/she sees or desires

Deficits in language comprehension

May be able to produce automatic responses (singing) and repeat phrases that they hear.

Make sure to discriminate between transcortical motor aphasia (intact comprehension w/ difficulties producing speech.

Transcortical sensory aphasia (difficulties in comprehension only)
What is propranolol (Inderal)? Why is it important to psych?
A beta blocker to treat hypertension and irregular heart beats.

SE: bradycardia, depression (sx include fatigue, insomnia, lassitude), nausea, vomiting, and light headedness.
Gestmann's syndrome is associated with damage to what part of the brain?
left parietal lobe
Conduction aphasia is associated with damage to what part of the brain?
Left hemisphere damage
Ideomotor apraxia is associated with what part of the brain?
Left Hemisphere damage
Unilateral neglect is most often caused by damage to?
Right hemisphere damage. Thus, involves the left side of the body
The hippocampus is known to be involved in what types of memories?
Memory consolidation, explicit memory, and spatial memory.
Short term memory has been associated with what parts of the brain?
prefrontal cortex
Autobiographical memory (component of declarative memory) is associated with which area of the brain?
medial temporal area of the brain
The medial temporal area of the brain is associated with what types of memory?
Autobiographical (declarative), Semantic (Declarative),
Spatial (actually mediated by the hippocampus which is located in the medial temporal area).
Define prospective memory
The ability to remember to perform an intended action at a specific point of time in the future.
What part of the brain has been associated with prospective memory?
Prefrontal cortex:

Remember executive functioning (ie ability to plan has also been associated with this area of the brain)
Indifference, verbal disinhibition, and denial of paralysis or other symptoms resulting from brain damage are symptoms most often associated with damage in what location of the brain?
Right hemisphere damage.
Weber's law says:
The more intense a stimulus, the greateer the cange in intensity that must occur for the individual to perceive a change (or a just noticable difference)
Side effects of Benzodiazapines for elderly?
Unsteadiness, confusion, memory loss
What drug is useful in reducing the sx of tardive dyskinesia?
Benzodiazapines. For example diazepam and clonazepam.
Describe the sx of Wernicke's aphasia
Fluent output, impaired repetition, and poor comprehension.
Describe sx of Broca's aphasia
Nonfluent output, poor repetition and intact comprehension
Compared to bilateral ECT unilateral ECT has ________retrograde amnesia and _____________anterograde amnesia for ________ and __________tasks.
Side effects of estrogen replacement therapy:
Decreased libido
Aside from psychotic sx when patients take Clozapine improvements are also often seen in:
sx of depression and hostility
What are atypical features in depression? What two antidepressants are the best for treating depression with atypical features?
increased sleeping, increased appetite, marked mood reactivity, phobic sx, and or a sense of severe fatigue.
MAOI's and SSRI's
What does cortisol do and where is it secreted?
Cortisol mediates stress response, maintaining blood sugar, bodily fluids and electolytes. Secreted from adrenal cortex.
What area of the brain is most effected in Korsakoff's syndrome?
Mammillary bodies which are apart of the diencephalon. There is also evidence that there is some damage to the thalamus.
How does nicotine exert effects on the brain?
Nicotine binds to the nicotinic receptors (which are a type of acetylcholine receptor).
What does SPECT stand for and what does it measure?
SPECT: single proton emission computed tomography

assesses regional cerebral blood flow
What neurotransmitter has anorexia nervousa been associated with?
Serotonin. According to W. Kaye suggests that anorexia is associated with an excess of serotonin in the brain. He suggests the following: Highlevels of serotonin lead to anxiety. Starvation reduces tryptophan which reduces brain levels of serotoning and temporarily reduces anxiety.
What areas of the brain have shown decreased metabolic activity in ADHD?
Right frontal lobe (including prefrontal cortex)
In addition, the caudatae nucleus and global pallidus (basal ganglia)has been shown to be smaller and have less brain activity.
What area of the brain shows atrophy in patients with Huningtons chorea?
Caudate Nucleus and putamen
(parts of the basal ganglia) show the most structural differences.
Where do petit mal seizures originate in the brain?
In Alzheimer's dementia, pathology in _________ most clearly distinguishes those with and without the d/o.
Entorhinal cortex

Up to 30% of the volume in the entorhinal cortex is lost.
What parts of the brain does Parkinsons Disease effect?
substantia nigra, brain stem nuclei, and presence of Lewy bodies.
What are common sx of frontal convexity syndrome, (a type of frontal lobe tumor)?
Episodes of aggression, problems initiating behavioral activities, discrepant verbal and motor behavior, impaired sustained attention and motor preservation.
What area of the brain develops last in terms of development?
The cortex is not well developed at birth. Cortex continues to develop until 15 years of age.
Damage to the cerebellum is associated with what?
Ataxia (jerky staggering gait and other uncoordinated movements.

Dysarthia (slurred speech).

Nystagmus (jerky eye movements)

The cerebellum maintains posture and balance
What are the different causes of Cerebral Palsy?
Brain lesions cause the nonprogressive motor dysfunction of CP.
Prenatal: heredity, anoxia, metabolic disturbance

Natal: anoxia or trauma

Postnatal: trama, infection, toxic poisoning
What is neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and what are the symptoms?
A rare reaction to neuroleptic drugs.

Thought to be caused by dopamine blockage in the basal ganglia

Sxs: Muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, stupor, painful joints, mutism, tachycardia and urinary retention.
Which structure releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone and what does this hormone do?
The hypothalamus releases the gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This release then stimulates production and release of the gonadotropic hormones by the pituitary gland which then stimulates the gonads to release the sex hormones.
What neurotransmitter is associated with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome?
Theorists attribute it to a dopamine blockade. Some have suggested the use of dopamine agonists.
What is an effective psychotropic medication for restless leg syndrome?
pramipexole is a dopamine agonist.
Tourettes syndrome is associated with what brain structure?
Caudate nucleus mediates automatic movement and supersensitivity of dopamine receptors in this structure has been linked to tourettes.
Describe how the sleep cycle changes over the life span.
Charactersistics of the sleep cycle change over the course of the lifespan prior to age 5 or 6 the different stages of slow wave sleep are not discernible on an EEG

About 50% of sleep is REM in the first few weeks of life

Often exhibit an advanced sleep phase.
15% of sleep is REM in the elderly
Where is the suprachiasmatic nucleus?
Hypothalamus. It has been implicated in the circadian rhythms.
What neurotransmitter is involved in the effects of cocaine?
Increased levels of dopamine.
What does T1 innervate?
What does c8 innervate?
T1 innervates the forearm and C8 innervates the ring and little fingers.
What does T2 through T12 innervate?
The trunk.
Name some characteristics of Huntingtons Chorea.
Emotional and personality changes are often first signs

Tics that increase with stress

Dysarthic speech is a common sx.
What are other names for Wernicke's aphasia?
Sensory, receptive, and impressive aphasia.
What area of the brain is associated with propagnosia?
Bilateral occipitotemporal area
Damage to the left anterior cerebral hemisphers is associated with what deficits?
Depression, anxiety, worry and other negative emotional states.

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