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Psychology Unit 1


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Afferent vs Efferent
Afferent (toward central nervous system) vs efferent (away)
Define: Plasticity
The nervous system's ability to adapt or change as the result of experience
Define: Endorphines
mood elevator, sleep and pain killers Pleasureable sensations and control of pain
Define: Synaptic Transmission
(from one neuron to another) knowledge, habits, effects of drugs are seen throug hte synaptic transmission
Define: Axonal Transmission
(within a neuron) the sending of a pulse from the cell body to the terminal buttons
Define: Myelin Sheath
causes the energy going from the nucleus to the terminal buttons to jump from node to node. It moves faster. Very crucial in life or death situations.
Sensory neurons vs motor neurons
sensory (towards brain) motor (away)
Define: Motor Neurons
a nerve cell that carries messages away from the central nervous system towards the muscles and glands (aka Efferent Neuron)
Define: Sensory Neurons
a nerve cell that carries messages towards the central nervous system from sense receptors (aka Afferent Neuron)
Define Nerve/neural impluse
"Action potentail" is generated at the cell body and goes down the axon to the terminal buttons
Define: cell body
the part of a cell containing the nucleus, which includes the chromosomes
What does Darwin say about Evolution?
natural selection. And we evolved from monkeys
Define: All-or-none principle
either the axon "fires" or it doesn't.
Define: Terminal buttons
tiny bulblike structures at the end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters that carry the neuron's message into the synapse
Define: Axon
in a nerve cell, an extended fiver that conducts info from the soma to the terminal buttons
Define: Dendrite
Brached fiber that extends outward from the cell body and carries info into the neuron
Sex chromosmes XX vs Xy
mom gives the X while dad give X/Y. XX= girl XY=boy
Genotypes vs Phenotypes
Genotype (the genetic pattern that makes you different from anyone else on earth.) vs Phenotype (physical characteristics)
What are some examples of Positive, Negative and Zero correlation?
Positive (SAT scores and GPA), Negative (Number of drinks per week and GPA), Zero (Height and GPA)
Define: Negative correlation
A correlation coefficient indicating that the variables change simultaneously in opposite directsons ) as one gets smaller the other gets bigger)
Define: Positive Correlation
a correlation coefficient indicating that the variables change simultaneously in the same directon.
Polygraph (lie detector) devices are remarkably accurate in detecting physical responses that,in the eye of a trained examiner, reliably indicate when a suspect is lying. (T/F
False. Even the most expert poloygrapher can incorrectly classifly a truth teller as a liar or fail to identify someone who is lying
Intelligence is a nearly pure genetic trait that is fixed at the same level throughout a person's life (T/F)
False. Intelligence is the result of both heredity and environment
You were born with all the brain cells that you will ever have (T/F)
False. Some parts of the brain continue to create new cells throught life
During your most vivid dreams, your body may be paralyzed (T/F)
It is a myth that most people use only 10% of their brain (T/F)
True: This is a myth. We use all pars of our brains every day
What are two specialized areas under Applied Psychology
Clinical psychology, counseling, engineering psych, industrial/organizational pysh
What are two specialized areas under Experimental psychology (define them)
Biopsychology (the connections between biology, behavior and mental processes) and cognitive psychology (the study of the mind)
Define: Applied psychology
actually work with patients
Define: Experimental psychologists
perform most of the research that creates new ideas. Most of the work is done at universities
Define: Correlation Coefficiently
indicates taht the variable changes simultaneously in the same direction: As one grows bigger the other grows. The range goes from -1.0 to +1.0. No correlation=0
Define: Rehabilitation Psychologists
work with nurses/counselors/ social workers and their clients/patience's
Define: Engineering psychologists
people and equipment
Define: Empirical investigation
the collection of objective info by means of careful measurements based on direct experience
Psychological Research: Correlational study
a form of research in which hte relationship between variables is studied, but without the experimental manipulation of an independent variable. Can't determine cause and effect relationships.
Psychological Research: Experiment
a kind of research in which the researcher controls all the conditions and diirectly manipulates the conditions, including the independent variable
Define; School Psychologists
they teach
Define: Behaviorism
Focus only on behavior (no mental at all)
Define: Psychodynamic psychology
Personality/mental disorders arise from the unconscious mind
Define: Naturalistic Observation
studying people/animals in their natural habitat
Define: Pseudopsychology
unspoorted psychological beliefs that pretend to be scientific truth (horoscopes)
What does the Human Nervous System consist of?
Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
What does the CNC consist of?
The Brain and the Spinal Cord
What does the PNS consist of?
Somatic NS and the Autonomic NS
What does the Somatic NS control?
muscles and sends somatosensory input to the brain
What does the Autonomic NS consist of?
Sympathetic NS and the Parasympathetic NS
What does the Sympathetic NS do?
mediates physical arousal for responses to emergency or urgent behavior fight or flight
What does the Parasympathetic NS do?
mediates a slowing down mode of functioning returns body to normal
What does the Brain consist of?
Hindbrain and Forebrain
What does the Hindbrain consist of?
brainstem, pons and medulla
What does the brainstem do?
its a continuation of neurons running up and down the spinal cord
What does the pon handle?
handles sleep functions
What does the medulla handle?
breathing and heart rate
What does the Forebrain consist of?
Hypothalamus, thalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex
What does the hypothalmus handle?
the four fs fighting, feeding, fleeing, mating
What does the thalamus do?
sensory relay station
What does the limbic system consist of?
olfactory cortex, amygdala and hippocampus
What does the olfactory cortex do?
processing of smell and oder
What does the Amygdala do?
strong role in emotional responding and emotional states
What does the hippocampus do?
strong role in memory
What does the cerebral cortex consist of?
left and right hemispheres.
What do each hemispheres in the brain have?
frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital love
What do the frontal loves control?
motor control
What do the parietal lobes control?
somatosensory cortex (skin senses)
What do Temporal lobes control?
What do Occipital lobes control?
Visual cortex and are dedicated to visual processing
What is the RAS? What does it do? Where is it located?
Reticular Activating System handles arousal and alertness located in hindbrain or forebrain
What are the basic steps in Axonal Transmission?
(within a neuron) 1. Stimulation arrives via the dendrites 2. Stimulation grows (the hole in the bucket) 3. A threshold is reached 4. Action Potential (the energy goes downthe axon to the terminal buttons) 5. Stimulation passes to the next neuron
What are the basic steps in Synaptic Transmission?
(from one neuron to another) 1. The synaptic vesicles move to the presynaptic membrane 2. They explode into the synaptic cleft
How many different types of neurotransmitters are there? Why are there so many?
about 60+ each neurotransmitter relates to a different function
what are acetylcholine
A neurotransmitter that plays a role in muscle control
Define: Cerebral Cortex
The wrinkkly shit on your brain (the larger the surface are=smarter) Everyday consciousness
What does the corpus callosum do?
communicates between the two hemisheres
What does the left Hemisphere control?
Frontal Lobe (Motor cortex, control of speech) Parietal Lobe (Somatosensory cortex, skin senses) Temporal love (Most syntactic stuff(grammer) and all vocab) Occipital lobe (visual cortex)
What does the right hemisphere control?
Frontal lobe (motor cortex) Parietal lobe (Somatosenosry cortex) Temporal (auditory cortex, limited vocab) Occipital lobe (visual cortex)
Define:Biological perspective/view
The psychologica perspective that searches for the causes of behaviorin the functioning of genes, the brain and nervous system and the endocrine (hormone) system
Define: Behavioral Perspective/view
focuses on learning, control of behavior by the environment, stimuli and responses, but not mental processes
Define: Sociocultural perspective
A main psychological viewpoint emphasizing the importance of social interaction, soical learning and a cultural perspective.
Wilhelm Wundt
first person to call himself a psychologist. "The methods of science could be used to study the mind, as well as the body"
Define: Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychologists
they seek to understand what motivates people to work and to advise managers on ways of encouraging employees to be productive
Psychiatrists vs Psychologists
Psychiatry= a medical specialty. Hots a MD and have special training in the treatment of mental and behavior problems typically with drugs. Can license prescribtions. View paitens from a medica lperspective Psychology= encompasses the whole range of human behavor and mental processes from function to social interaction and from mental well-being to mental disorder.
Define: Dependent variable
the measured outcome of a study; the responses of the subjects in a study
Define: Developmental Perspective
One of the six main psychological viewpoints, distinguished by its emphasis on nature and nurture and on predictable changes that occur across the lifespan.
Define: Cognitive Perspective
mental processes, such as thought, learning, memory, and perception. The mind as a computer-like "machine", how emotion and motivation influence thought and perception
Define: Humanistic psychology
A clinical approach emphasizing human ability, growth, potential and free will
Describe synaptic transmission
synaptic vesicles in the terminal buttons burst against hte presynaptic membrane releasing neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. If the neurotransmitter fits in the receptor site, the post synaptic membrane allows the neurotransmitter into the dendrite of the neuron, stimulating it
What is crossover? Which senses use crossovering?
Crossovering is when the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. vision, skin senses and motor control
For right handers which side controls speech, is better at language and is better at visuo-spatial reasoning?
left: speech, language right: visuo-spatial
For left handers which side controls speech, is better at language and is better at visuo-spatial reasoning?
right: speech, language left: visuo-spatial
Is there a tendency for handedness to be heritable?
yes, left-handedness will run in families.
experiment vs correlational study
-experiment- all the conditions that could potentially influence the results come under the researcher’s control -correlational study- cannot have enough control to perform a “true” experiment, based on a “natural experiment” that has already occurred, but cannot be sure of the outcome because the test groups were not randomly assigned and the independent variable cannot be directly manipulated
Define: Operational definition
uses validation test to determine the presence and quantity of a process
Genes vs chromosomes
-genes- “words” that make up each organism’s instruction manual, encoded in shor segments of DNA -chromosomes- tightly coiled strands of DNA on which the genes occur in sequence
Define: Behavior genetics
studies the role of genetics in behavior and the inheritance of behavioral traits
Define: Nerve impulses (or neural impulse)
electrical discharge that travels along a nerve fiber
Define: Snapse
connections between neurons
Define: Presynaptic membrane
membrane on the end of a terminal button, hwere the synaptic vesicles burst to release neurotransmitters
Define: Post- Synaptic membrane
the membrane on the end of a dendrite. Has gabs called receptor sites to allow certain neurotransmitters into the right dendrite
History of Modern Psychology
Freud --> Hung --> Existential and Humanistic Psychology --> Clinical, counseling, abnormal, personality and social psych Wundt/James with early experimentalists --> Hehaviorism --> Modern experiment psychology (sensation nad perception, neuropsychology, cognitive neuroscience)
Define: Whole Person Perspective
a group of psychological perspectives that take a global view of theperson: included are psychodynamic psychology, humanistic psychology, and trait and temperament psychology
Psychoanalysis's and psychanalysis
Psychoanalysis is an approach to psychology based on Freud's assertion which emphasize unconscious processes. The term is used to refer broadly both to Freud's psychoanalytic theory and to his psychoanaltic treatment method.Psychoanalysts are psychologists that follow this path for examination in patients.
Who was Sigmund Freud?
Venesian psychologist who, at the dawn of the twentieth century, asserted that personality and mental disorders stemmed arised mainly from processes in the unconscious mind rather than from consciousness. Frued's psychoanalytic theory purported to explain the WHOLE person, not just certain components *such as attention, perception, memory, or emotion* as the other schools of psychology have done. His goal was to explain every aspect of mind and behaviour using one big, grand, theory.
Define: Synaptic vesciles
a tiny bubble-like sac located near the synapse thaqt bursts every time the electrical impulse reaches the terminal button during a synaptic transmission.
Define: Sub Cortical Structures
Brainstem, Medula-a brainstem structure that controls breathing and heart rate, Pons-Responsible for Sleep and arousal from sleep, Cerebellum-the "little brain" attatched to the brainstem, responsible for coordinated movements.
Define: Wada Test
used to establish which cerebral functions are localized to which hemisphere
Define: Nodes of Ravier
the breaks in between the bumps in the Myelin Sheaths
Define: Natural Selection
The driving force behind evolution, by which hte environment "selects" the fittest organisms
Define: Mutation
randomly derived change to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism
Define: Neuron
cell specialized to receive and transmit info to other cells in the body also called a nerve cell. Bundles of many neurons are called nerves
Define: Neurotransmitters
Chemical messenger that relays neural messages across the synapse. Many neurotransmitters are also hormoes
Define: Endocrine system
The Endocrine system is the hormone system-the bodys chemical messenger system including the pituitary, thiroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, and testes. Hormones from the pituitary gland stimulate growth. Hormones from the testes and ovaries influence sexual development and sexual responses. Hormones from the adrenals produse arousal accopanying fear. Hormones fro the thyroid control metabolism

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