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Child & Adol. Psych


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behavior modification
procedures that combine and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses.
An approach that regards directly observable events - stimuli and responses - as the appropriate focus of study and views the development of behavior as taking place through classical and operant conditioning
child development
a field of study devoted to the understanding of constancy and change from conception through adolescence and emerging adulthood
in ecological systems theory, temporal changes in children's environments, which produce new conditions that affect development. These changes arise from within the child.
clinical interview
A method in which the researcher uses a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view.
clinical/case study method
a method in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique individual child by combining interview data, oberservations, test scores, and sometimes psychophysiological measures.
cognitive-development theory
an approach introduced by Piaget that veiws children as actively constructing knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world, and views cognitive development as taking places in stages.
cohort effects
the effects of cultural-historical change on the accuracy of longitudinal and cross sectional findings. Children born at the same time are influenced by particular cultural and historical conditions. results based on one cohort may not apply to children developing and different times
unique combinations of genetic and environmental circumstances that can result in markedly different paths of development
continuous development
a view that regards development as gruadually argumenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with.
correlation coeficient
a number, ranging from +1 ro -1 that describes the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
correlational design
a research design in which the researcher gathers information without altering participants experiences and examines the relationships between variables. Does not permit inferences about cause and effect.
cross-section design
a research study in which groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.
dependent variable
the variable the researcher expects to be affected by the independent variable in the experiment
discontinuous development
a view in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.
dynamic system perspective
a view that regards the child's mind, body, and physical and social worlds as a dynamic, integrated system. A change in any part of the system leads the child to reorganize his or her behavior so the various components of the system work together lead the child to reorganize his or her behavior so the various components of the system work together again but in a more complex and effective way
ecological systems theory
bronfenbrenner's approach, which views the child as developing within a complex systems of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment, from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values and programs
a method in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique values and social processes of a culture or a distinct social group by living with its members and taking field notes for an extended period of time
an approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and it's evolutionary history
evolutionary developmental psychology
an approach that seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies as those competencies change with age
in ecological systems theory, settings that do not contain children but that affect their experiences in immediate settings. Examples include parents workplaces, heath and welfare services in the community, and parent's social networks
experimental design
a research design in which the invesigator randomly assigns participants to two or more treatment conditions. Permits inferences about cause and effect.
independent variable
the variable the researcher expects to cause changes in another variable in an experiment
information processing
an approach that views the human mind as a symbol manipulating system through which information flows and regards cognitive development as a continuous process
longitudinal design
a research design in which participamts are studied repeatedly at different ages.
longitudinal-sequential design
a research design with both longitudinal and cross-sectional components in which groups of participants born in different years are followed over time.
in ecological systems, cultural values, laws, customs, and resources that influence experiences and interactions at inner levels of the environment
in ecological systems theory, connections between childrens immediate settings
microgenetic design
a research design in which researchers present children with a novel task and follow their mastery over a series of closely spaces sessions
a genetically determined naturally unfolding course of growth
in ecological systems theory, the activities and interaction patterns in the childs immediate surroundings
naturalistic obervation
a method in which the researcher goes into the natual environment to observe the behavior of interest
nature-nurture controversy
debate among theorists about whether genetic or environmental factors are more important determinants of development and behavior
noble savage
rousseau's view of the child as natually endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth
normative approach
an approach in which measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuas and age-related averages are computed to resent typical development
psychoanalytic perspective
an approach to personality development in which freud assumes that children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. The way these conficts are resolved determines the persons ability to learn, to get along with others and to cope with anxiety
psychological methods
methods that measure the relationship between physiological processes and behavior. Among the most common are measures of autonomic nervous systemn activity (such as heart rate and respiration) and brain functioning (EEG and fMRI)
psychosexual theory
Freud's theory which emphasizes that how parents manage children's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years of life is crucial for healthy personality development
psychosocial theory
erikson's theory which emphasizes that at each freudian stage, individuals not only develop a unique personality but also acquire attidtudes and skills that help them become active contributing members of their society
random assignment
an unbiased procedure for assigning participant to treatment groups, such as drawing numbers out of a hat, flipping a coin . Increases chance of having that participants characteristics equally distributed across treatment conditions in an experimemnt
the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development
sensitive period
a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. Development can occur later, but it is harder to induce.
social learning theory
a theory that emphasizes the role of modeling, or obersevational learning, in the development of behavior. its most recent revision stresses the importance of thinking in social learning and is called social-cognitive theory
sociocultural theory
vygotsky's theory in which children are assumed to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a communities culture through cooperative dialogues with more knowlegable members of society
a qualitative change in thinking, feeli9ng, and behaving that characterizes a specific period of development
structured interview
a method in which each participant is asked the same questions in the same way
structured observation
a method in which the investigator sets up a situation that evokes the behavior of interest and observes it in a laboratory.
tabula rasa
locke's view of child as a "blank slate" whose character is shaped by experience
an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains and predicts behavior
behavioral genetics
a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity in humans traits and abilities
the tendency of hereditary to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
collectivist societys
societies in which people define themselves as part of a group and stress group over individuals goals.
concordance rate
the percentage of instances in which both members of a twin pair show a trait when it is present in one pair member. used to study the contribution of hereditary to emotional and behavioral disorders that can be judged as either present or absent
development of te individual resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between hereditary and all levels of the environment
extended family household
a household in which parent and child live with one or more adult relatives
genetic-environmental correlation
the idea that hereditary influences the environments to which individuals are exposed
heritability estimate
a statistic that measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
individualitic societys
societies in which people think of themselves as seperate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
kinship studies
studies comparing the characteristics of family members to determine the important of hereditary in complex human characteristics
a type of genetic-environmental correlation in which individuals actively chose environments that compliment their heredity
public policies
laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions
range of reaction
each persons unique, genetically determined response to range of environmental conditions
socioeconomic status
a measure of a families social position and economic well being that combines three interrelated, but not completely overlapping, variables: (1) years of education and (2) the prestige of and skill required by one's job, both of which measured economic status, and (3) income, which measures economic status
a group of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
a viral infection that destroys the immune system and is spread through transfer of body fluids from one person to another. it can be transmitted prenatally.
age of viability
the age at which the fetus can fetus can first survive if born early. orrcurs sometime 22 and 26 weeks.
the inner membrane that forms a protective covering around the prenatal organism
the zygote 4 days after fertilization, when the tiny mass of cells forms a hollow, fluid filled ball
the outer membrane that forms a protective covering around the prenatal organism. It sends out tiny, fingerlike villi, fro, which the placenta begins to develop
the prenatal organism from 2 to 8 weeks after conception, during which time the foundations of all body structures are internal organs are laid down
embryonic disk
a small cluster of cells on the inside of the blastocyst, from which the new organism will develop
fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
the condition of children who display some but not all defects of fetal alcohol syndrome. usually their mothers drank during pregnancy just in smaller quantities
fetal alcohol syndom (FAS)
a set of defects that results when women consume large amounts of alcohol during their pregnancy. inclued mental retardation, slow physical growth, and facial abnormalities
the prenatal organism from the the third month to the end of the pregnancy, during which time completion of body structures and dramatic growth in size take place
attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine lining 7 to 9 days after fertilization
a white, downy hair that covers the entire body of the fetus, helping the vernix to stick to the skin
neural tube
the primitive spinal cord that develops from the ectoderm, the top of which swells to form the brain during the period of the embryo
the organ that seperates the mothers bloodstream from the embryos or fetal bloodstream but permits exchange of nutrients and waste products
RH factor incompatibility
a condition that arises when the RH protein, present in the fetus' blood but not in the mothers, causes the mother to build up a antibodies. If these return to the fetus' system, the destroyed red blood cells, reducing the oxygen supply and to organs and tissues
three day german measles. cause a wide variety of prenatal abnormalities, especially whenh it strikes during the embryonic period
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
a sedative widely available in europe, canada and south america in the 1960's. when taken by women between 4th and 6th weeks after conception, produced gross deformities of the embryos arms and legs
all illness of the last half of pregnancy, in which the mothers blood pressure increases sharply and her hands, face and feet swell. If untreated it can cause convulsions in the mother and death of the fetus
a paraitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked meat or by coming in contact with infected cats feces. During the 1st trimester it can lead to eye and brain damage
three equal time periods in pre-natal development, each one lasting 3 months
the thin outer ring of cells of the lastocyst, which will become the structures that provide protective covering and nourishment to the new organism
umbilical cord
the long cord connecting the prenatal organism to the placenta, it delivers nutrients and removes waste
a white, cheese-like substance that covers the fetus and prevents skin from chapping due to constant exposure to amniotic fluid

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