This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

psychology rathus chapter 2-biology & behaviour


undefined, object
copy deck
What influenced Darwin?
"Essay of the Principle of Population" by Thomas Malthus
What is the Theory of Evolution?
Survival of the fittest
What is Evolutionary Psychology?
Applying adaptation & natural selection to mental processes & behaviour
Give an example of "instinct"?
The Egg Zone-Goose will roll back her egg if close to nest only. Stickleback Fish will attack other fish without being shown.Song of the Sparrow: a sparrow reared in captivity will still sing
what is heredity?
the biological and structures & processes transmitted from generation to generation
what is behavioural genetics?
combination of biology & psychology -- concerned with heretic traits
What percentage of DNA do all people share?
what is molecular genetics?
identifies genes that are connected with behaviour and mental processing
Give an example of molecular genetics.
socialbility, shyness, aggresiveness, thrill seeking, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar, alcholism, criminal behaviour
What are genes?
basic building block of heredity.
How many genes in every human cell?
30,000 -40,000
what are chromosomes?
string of genes
how many chromosomes in each cell?
46 (23 pairs)
what does dna stand for?
deoxyribonucleic acid
what did the human genome project learn?
that there are 3 billion code sequences that make up your body
which chromosome defines the sex of a baby?
the 23rd pair
what is "kinship studies"?
attempting to compare traits and behaviour patterns in biologically related people to determine genetic factors.
what are twins from the same fertilized egg called?
Monozygotic Twins (MZ)or Identical Twins
what are twins from 2 seperate eggs called?
Dizygotic Twins (DZ)or Fraternal Twins
what is adoptive studies?
Looking for similarities between children and their natural & adoptive parents
what is the purpose of selective breeding?
to enhance physical and/or behavioural traits in offspring
Give an example of selective breeding
Rats. Smart rats only made 1 mistake after 7 generations. Dull rats made 9-10 mistakes after 7 generations.
what is a neuron?
nerve cell
what is inside a neuron? (6)
cell body, dendrite, axon, terminals, myelin, glial
what is the purpose of the neurons' cell body?
it contains the nucleus which generates energy
what is the purpose of the neurons' dendrite?
it receives incoming messages from adjourning cells (roots)
what is the purpose of the neurons' axon?
it carries messages away from the cell body (trunk)
what does the neurons' terminals look like?
they are bulb shaped structures at the end of the axon.
what is the purpose of the neurons' myelin?
it is the fatty substance around the axons that help conduction.
what is the purpose of the neurons' glial cell?
it removes dead neurons & waste products from the nervous system.
What is a neural impulse?
a message that travels along the neuron
how fast does a message travel along the neuron?
between 2 and 225 miles an hour
what is the neurons resting potential?
-70 millivolts (negative charge)
what is depolarized cell?
the action of the cell while it becomes positively charged
what does 'action potential' mean?
when a positively charged neuron returns to the resting state of negatively charged. the 'message' is sent.
what is "firing"
when neurons attempt to transmit messages to other neurons, muscles or glands
what is a cell threshold?
the cell will not fire until the threshold is reached.
what is the all or none principle?
when the threshold is reached the neuron fires an impulse of the same strength.
what is the refractory period?
a period of time when the neuron will not fire. period of recovery during which positive sodium is not allowed to pass thru the neural membrane
what is a synapse?
the Junction (fluid filled gap between neurons)
what are synaptic vesicles?
sacs in the axon terminals which contain neurotransmitters
what are neurotransmitters?
chemical keys to communicate to influence the receiving neuron.
what is a receptor site?
specifically tailored site on the receiving neuron where the chemical key (neurotransmitter) fits
what is reuptake?
reabsorption of neurotransmitters by the sending neuron
what is excitatory?
when neurotransmitter influence on the receiving cell causing it to fire
what is inhibitory?
neurotransmitter influencing the receiving cell preventing it from firing
Name the 6 types of neurotransmitters. SNAGED
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), Endorphins
what is the purpose of ACh?
Acetylcholine. Decrease associated with?
controls muscle contractions.
can be both excitatory & inhibitory. Decrease in ACh associated with Alzheimers.
what is the purpose of Dopamine? Deficiencies?
affects voluntary movements, learning, memory & arousal. Deficiencies are linked to Parkinson's. Schizophrenics may have more receptor sites for dopamine leading to confusion & false perceptions.
what is the purpose of Norepinephrine? Involved in?
acts as neurotransmitter and as a hormone. Involved in arousal, learning & memory, and eating. linked to mood disorders. Produced largely in the brain stem. Cocaine creates an excess of norepinephrine leading to persistent arousal
what is the purpose of serotonin? Deficiencies cause?
involved in emotional arousal & sleep. deficiencies have been linked to eating disorders, alcoholism, depression, aggression, & insomnia
what is the purpose of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)? What boots GABA?
it is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that may help calm anxiety reactions. Tranquilizers and alcohol may quell anxiety by binding with GABA receptors.
what is the purpose of endorphins?
is an inhibitory neurotransmitter; natural painkiller. experienced by runners as the runner's high
what are the 2 parts of the nervous system?
CNS (central nervouos system) & PNS (peripheral nervous system)
what does a nerve consist of? (1)
a bundle of axons
what does the CNS consist of? (2)
the brain & the spinal cord
what does the PNS consist of? (1)
afferent(sensory) & efferent (motor) neurons. (which transmit messages from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands.
when is the sympathetic division of the ANS most active?
during emotional responses
when is the parasympathetic division of the ANS most active?
during organ processing and replenishing reserves of energy.
what is a spinal reflex?
an unlearned response to a stimulus that may involve only 2 neurons (afferent & efferent)
what is an interneuron?
a 3rd neuron that transmits the impulse from sensory to motor thru spinal cord
what is gray matter?
non=myelinated neurons; found in brain & spinal cord
what is white matter?
myelinated neurons found in brain & spinal cord.
what does an EEG do? Electroencephalograph
detects minute amounts of electrical activity in the brain
What are the 3 brain imaging techniques?
what does CAT stand for?
computerized axial tomograph
what does PET stand for?
positron emission tomography
what does MRII stand for?
magnetic reasoning imaging
how does a cat work?
passes a narrow x-ray beam thru the head & measures brain structures. generates a 3D image of the brain.
what does a cat show?
deformities in shape & structure that are connected with blood clots, tumors, & other health problems.
how does a mri work?
person lies in a powerful magnetic field and is exposed to radio waves that cause parts of the brain to emit signals.
what does a mri show?
people with schizophrenia have smaller prefrontal regions but larger ventricles
how does a pet work?
a harmless amount of radioactive compound (tracer) is mixed with glucose & injected into the blood stream. a computer generated image of the activity of parts of the brain by tracing the glucose
what does a pet show?
which parts of the brain are most active when we are engaged in various activities.
where is the hindbrain?
where the spinal cord meets the brain
the hindbrain contains which 3 structures?
what does the medulla do?
regulates vital functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, & respiration
what does pons do?
transmits info about body movements & is involved in functions related to attention, sleep/alertness & respiration
what does cerebellum do/
involved in maintaining balace & controlling motor behaviour
what does RAS stand for?
Reticular Activating System
what does the RAS do?
it is vital in the functions of attention, sleep & arousal
where is the forebrain
forward most par of the brain
what the the 4 parts of the forebrain?
thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic, cerebrum
what does the thalamus do?
its the relay station for sensory stimulation
what does the hypothalamus do?
it is vital for body temperature regulation, concentration of fluids, storage of nutrients, aspects of motivation and emotion. involved in hunger, thirst & sexual behavior.
what does the limbic system do?
involved in memory, emotion and drives hunger, sex & aggression
what does the cerebrum do?
it is responsible for thinking & language
what is the corpus callosum
bundle of 200 million nerve fibers connecting the 2 hemispheres
what is the cerebral cortex?
the outer layer of the cerebrum. Is involved in most bodily activities, sensations & responses.
What 4 lobes included in the cerebral cortex?
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
where is the frontal lobe and what does it contain?
in front of the central fissure & contains the motor cortex which causes our body to move
where is the parietal lobe and what does it contain?
behind the central fissure and it contains the somatosensory cortex which receives messages from skin senses all over the body
where is the temporal lobe and what does it contain?
below the lateral fissure and contains the auditory area (hearing)
where is the occipital lobe and what does it contain?
lies behind the temporal lobe and is involved with vision
what is aphasia?
the disruption in the ability to understand or product language
where is Wernicke's area and what does it impair?
in the temporal lobe and ability to comprehend speech is impaired when damaged
where is Broca's area and what does it impair
processes info and sends it to the motor cortex. damage results in speaking slow simple sentences
what is being left brain?
primarily logical & intellectual
what is being right brained?
being intuitive, creative, & emotional
is left/right brain true?
No. the hemispheres do not act independently, they are connected by the corpus callosum.
Percent of lefties?
8-10%. more common in males
what bad things have been connected with being left handed?
language probs, dyslexia, stuttering, migraines, allergies, schizophrenia
what good things have been connected with being left handed?
artsy, musical, matheticians.
does handedness run in families?
what is a gland?
organ that secretes chemical substances
what are the 2 types of glands in the endocrine system? Give examples
with ducts (saliva, sweat, tears) without ducts (released into blood stream)
what is the pituitary gland?
it secretes growth hormones and other hormones which influence other glands in the endocrine system.
what does the growth hormone do?
regulate growth of muscles, bones & glands
what does prolactin hormone do?
regulates maternal behavior in lower animals such as rats, also produces milk in women
what does ADH do? Antidiuretic Hormone
inhibits production of urine when fluid levels in the body are low
what does the oxytocin hormone do?
stimulates labor in pregnant women
what does the melatonin hormone do?
it is secreted by the Pineal gland and helps regulate the sleep/wake cycle
what does the thyroxin hormone do?
it is secreted by the thyroid and affects the body's metabolism.
what is Hypothyroisism?
too little thyroxin resulting in being overweight
what is Hyperthyroidism?
too much thyroxin characterized by excitability, insomnia & weigh loss
what do the Adrenal glands do?
release hormones to increase resistance to stress. promotes muscle development and the release of sugar in the liver making more energy available. Epinephrine is also known as adrenaline, produced by the adrenal glands.
what does testosterone do?
it is produced by the testes & in small amounts by the ovaries. considered to be the male sex hormone as it aids in developing male sex organs.
what is primary sex characteristics in males?
characteristics involved in reproduction: increased penis size, sperm producing ability of the testes
what are secondary sex characteristics in males?
presence of beard, deeper voice, etc. characteristics not directly related to reproduction.
what does estrogen & progesterone do?
produced by ovaries and small amount in testes. fosters female repoductive capacity & secondary sex characteristics. they vary to regulate the woman's menstrual cycle.
what does pms stand for?
what are some symptoms?
premenstrual syndrome.
depression, anxiety, headaches
what causes pms?
complex interaction between ovarian hormones & neurotransmitters.
what are some treatments for pms?
diet, exercise, hormone treatments.
what is menopause?
when the drop off in female sex hormones (estrogen & progesterone) becomes permanent
what are some characteristics of menopause?
hot flashes, perspiration, loss of sleep, feelings of anxiety & depression
what is HRT? What is it?
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Synthetic estrogen & progesterone used to offset the effects of declining of naturally occurring hormones.
what are the positives of HRT?
reduce hot flashes, osteoporosis, colon cancer and age related cognitive declines. Raises good cholesterol and lowers bad cholesterol.
what are the negatives of HRT?
increase in some kinds of cancer (ie breast, endometrial). possible increase risk of stroke & heart attacks
What is Andropause? (aka Viropause or Manopause)
fall off of levels of male sex hormone androgens.
what are the characteristics of Andropause?
more gradual in men. loss of fertility, probs with erections, loss of bone mass, height. body fat % nearly doubles. loss of hearing and vision.
what is irritable male syndrome?
the drop off of testosterone leading to anxiety, depression or irritability in men
what is the treatment for Andropause, Viropause, Manopause and Irritable Male Syndrome?
Exercise. Diet rich in calcium & D. HRT (Testosterone)
What are the positives of male HRT?
boost strength, energy & sex drive
What are the negatives of male HRT?
Connected with risk of prostrate cancer & cardiovascular disease.

Deck Info