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Define Epilespy
Chronically recurring cerebral dysrythmia originating from an abnormal group of neurons (focus) having frequent bursts of abnormal electrical activity which then spread to neighboring cells, & result in a seizure
Epilepsy symptoms:
1. intermittenc seizures for no underlying reason
2. unconscuius
3. unresponsive
4. muscle contractions
5. Impaired swallowing
6. Excessive salivation
7. teeth chattering from rapid jaw movement
3 Types of seizures:
1. Comples partial (grand mal
2. Generalized grand mal
3. Simple
What is another name for cerebral disrythemia?
What is the signalment for epilepsy?
1-4 year old animals
Differential between the 3 types of seizures
1. Complex partial - small musc. movement - only 1 part of body twitching; loss of consciousness
1 side of brain only
2. Generalized grand mal
Both sides of brain
Can't swallow
Big musc movement
Loss of consciousness
3. Simple - petit mal
normal electro stays in 1 hemi of the brain
2 types of muscle contractions
1. TOnic - contimuous muscluar activity - twitching
2. Clonic - alternating contraction & relaxxation - may not be rhythmic
3 Phases of seizures
1. Pre- ictal or aural - circuling & hiding, whining, stare into space

2. Ictal - muscular movement, chattering teeth, loss of consciousness, eyelids roll back, 15 seconds or less

3. Post-ictal - disoriented, hide, may not recognize owner, cats go under deep cover, saliva on face & back
What is "status epilepticus"
Brain tumors or poison of heavy metals'15 minute or more in duration.
Causes of seizures
1. Extracerebral -
-hypoglycemia( kittens & puppies),
-heat stroke,
-organ malfunction,
-hypoxia (lack of oxygen

2. Cerebral-
- tumors
- head trauma
- CVA ( stroke)
- Anscess
- hydrocephallus ( water btwn brain & cranium
-congenital defects
- high fever
How do you dx epilepsy?
1. Hx - age - 1 to 4 years, pruebred
2. PE - look for other neurological signs like head tilt
3. Blood work to R/O stuff
4. EEG or MRI* more common
5. CSF for bacteria
How is the seizure threshold determined?
- what is a high threshold
- what is a low threshold?
High - you are NOT likely to seizure

low- You are likely to seizure
How do you measure phenobarbital?
In grains
What does acetylpromazine do?
Lowers the seizure threshold
What does valium do?
Raises the seizure threshold. Use it for mid-seizure
What does catamine do?
Lowers the seizure threshold. It may cause seizures so use it simultaneously with valium
What is the most common drug used during a seizure?
Diazepamwhich depresses the subcortical levels - acts as a sedative, muscle relaxant, anti-convulsive
What is panosteitis?
An inflammatory disease of the long bones, esp humerousm radius, ulna, femur & tibia
Signalment for panosteitis?
Young male dogs,when dog has a major growth spurt esp:
Sheps, dobies & mixes of these
Suspected causes of panosteitis?
1.Possibly bacteria
2. bone stress(working & agility dogs)
3. hyperextrogenism
4. heredity - breed predilection
5. virus
Symptoms of panosteitis?
1. acut3e onset of lameness unrelated to trauma
2. May undergo spontaneous remission & relapse in a different limb
Dx of panosteitis?
1. Orthopedic exam to test joints & bones
2. Radiographs - increaswe radiopacity or medulllary canal
Do a comparison between sides
BLOOD & PE are not too revealing
Tx & care for panosteitis?
1. Usually self limiting
2. Analgesics
3. Anti-inflammartory - NO CORTICOID STEROIDS Ffor young dogs
4. Pain meds
5. rest
Define Degenerative myelopathy
A progressive degenerative condition of the spinal cord
Which are of the spinal cord is usually affected in Degenerative myelopathy?
lower spinal cord
Degenative myelopathy occurs in who?
Older than 7 years old German Shepards, & Shep mies -
Symptoms of Degenerative myelopathy
1.Weakness & eventual paralysis of the rear legs
2. fecal/ urinary incontinence
3. scraped topenails from dragging rear legs
Prognosis for Degenerative myelopathy
No cure, degeneration cannot be reversed. Slow degeneration & eventual euthanasia
Care for patients with Degenerative myelopathy
1. Steriods may help early on
2. EACA - animocaproic acid
3. accupuncture may help slow down degeneration & help with pain
What is "wobbler's syndrome"
Cervical vertebral instability; CVI
Which dogs are sussuptible to CVI
Large, fast growing dogs like Danes, Dobies, Rodesian Ridgebacks
Which breeed of horse gets CVI
Arabian horses
What can cause CVI
1. diet
2. trauma
3. disc disease
4. vertebral or caritlage deformities
What are symptoms of CVI
1. hindlimb incoordination (walking on eggshells)
2. dysmetria - unsteady gait
3. neck held rigidly
4. pain may be present, absent or intermittent
How do you treat acute CVI
1. IV Steroids & painkillers
2. Muscle relaxant
3. hand feed
4. rest & confinement
4. surgery
How do you treat chronic CVI
May not be able to fix so just treat symptoms
Surgery may work for CVI if it is caused by ____?
Cartilaginous or bone defect
Define Osteochondritis Dessicans (OCD)?
the developement of a cartilaginous flap from where a piece of cartilafge has detached from the joint surface (which is normally smooth)
Which dogs are most susseptible to OCD)
1. Fast growing breeds
2. young males 6-9 months
What joints are most likely to be affected by OCD?
1/ Shoulder joint
2. Stifle
3. hip
4. carpi
5. tarses
What causes OCD?
1. overwt
2. Barrel chested dogs like bassets & bull dogs
3. articular incongruity - congeenital or traumatic
4. overactivity
5. other joint stress - overcompensation from injury on opposite side
Symptoms of OCD?
1. lameness
2. joint pain
3. Decreased ROM
4. Altered gait
5. non-wt bearing
How to dx OCD?
1. Orthopedic evaluation
2. radiographs
3. arthrogram - inject dye into joint cavity- dye will sink in the divet
TX for OCD
1. Some spontaneously resolve
2. surgery
3. anti-inflammatories like rymadil
4. Pain medication
What is IDS
Intervertebral Disk SYndrome, disk injury
Which dogs are most susseptible to IDS
Dachshunds & Pekes
Long backed dogs - corgis, pigmy
What is the cause of IDS
Sudden, unaccustomed movement causes disk injury, resulting in mengeal irritation & spinal cord compression which impedes the nerve impulses
What is an extrusion of the disk & who gets it?
Rupture of the annulus, the nucleus is released into the vertebral canal
2. herniated material compresses the spinal cord

Long backed dogs
What is a protrusion of the disk * who gets it?
Dorsal Bulgign - NO RUPTURE
2. disk itself compresses into the Spinal cord

Large breed dogs
Which x-ray view provides the most information of IDS?
What is sponfrosis
Calcified bridge between the vertebrae which decreased ROM
What are symptoms of IDS?
1. hyperesthesia
2. loss of conscious proprioception
3. loss of voluntary motor fnction
4. Loss of superficial pain sensation
5. Loss of deep pain sensation
Tx for retrotubulatr abscess?
Drain the pus thru the roof of the mouth behind the last tooth
What is a sequestered infection & give an example
1. Hidden infection

2. retrotubulatr abscess?
What is the medical name for "dry eye" & definition?
keratitis conjunctivitis sicca

inflammation of the cornea & conjunctiva as a result of dryness to the globe of the eye from inadequate tear prod`uction
Which breeds are pre-disposed to keratitis conjunctivitis sicca
1. Bernese & swiss mountain dogs
What causes keratitis conjunctivitis sicca
1. Genetics
2. Ulcers
3. Chronic environmental allergies
4. Eyelid malformation
5. Old age
6. Sulfa drugs
What are the symptoms of keratitis conjunctivitis sicca
1. mucopurulent discharge
2. red
3. +/- pain
4. hazy look of a scarred cornea
What is the way to reach a definitive Dx for keratitis conjunctivitis sicca

Describe the procedure
Schermer Tear Test to measure the tear production

Put little notches from the test under the eyelid & wait 1 minute

Normal 10-15mm
Abnormal 5mm or below
Tx for keratitis conjunctivitis sicca
Ointment & carefully clean
Prognosis for keratitis conjunctivitis sicca
NEVER CURE - just manage
What are causes of conjunctivitis?
1.Infestion - esp in respiratory dz of cats
2. Dogs' allergies
3. Foreign body like a foxtail
4. Chemical irritation
Symptoms of conjunctivitis?
1. Ocular discharge
2. Red
3. Swollen
4. Painful
5. itchy
Tx for conjunctivitis?
1. Frequent cleaning
3. Antibiotics W/O STERIODS
EXCEPT - CATS with swollen lids - tx for a few days then tx- stain for ulcers
Define glaucoma?
increased intraoccular pressure caused by inadequate drainage of aqueous humor due to narrowed iridocorneal angle or overproduction of aqueous humor
Which breeds are pre-disposed to glaucoma?
2. Boston terriers
3. Beagles
4. Cockers
What are the usual causes of glaucoma?
1. congenital
2. other eye problem like subluxating lens
3. inflammation of the iris
4. Old age

Symptoms of glaucoma?
1. Pain
2. Probabe headach
3. blepharospasm ( closed eye)
4. Cloudy cornea
5. Unresponsive pupil
6. Scleral redness
7. byphthalmos (swollen bulgy eye)
8. vision loss
Dx for glaucoma?
Test IOP with a Schiotz tonometer or tonopen or coneoscope
What is the Fluorscein Dye test & what does it test for?
1.Flush eye
2. Apply sspecial orange strip to medial canthus -
3. Flush 2x w/ saline
(or put bit of strip in the salinein the syringe)
5. Read with a Wood's lamp for ulcer

Detects corneal ulcers in which are tears of perforaction of the cornea
What is tonometry to test?
Measures the tone of the globe of the eye for IOP or interocular pressure

Normal = 6-12 mm which = 15-30mm of pressure
Tx for glaucoma & define the procedures
1. miotics - contrac pupil & iris to reduce IOP by advancing the fluid in the eyeball

2. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors - works on ciliary body to slow production of aqueous humor. (use with miotics
3. mannitol - osmotic diuretic - synthesized sugar which helps to draw fluid out of the cell
4. corrective surgery for subluxated lens
5. enucleation - eye removal
What is otitis
Inflammatrion of the ear
What is an ocular emergency?
1. Glaucoma
2. Anytime the eye is hyphema (bloody eyeball_
3. Proptosis - prolapsed eyeball
what is the most common problem dealt with in a Vet Clinic?

Ear problems

Tend to be chronic
What is the most common of ear problem affecting the pinna & ear canal
O. externa
What cause O. externa
1. Allergies
2. Parasites
3. Foreign bodies
4. microorganisma
5. Wax
What does yeast look like
dark blue stained footprint
Symptoms of O. externa
1. red
2. Painful
3. itchy
4. odorous
5. exudates
6. sensitive
Dx for O. externa?
1. PE
2. Sample stained with DifQuik
3. Otic exam
4. Mite check
5. Cl. both ears even if primary complaint is only 1 ear
Tx for O. externa
1. ear clean
2. earr meds
3. treat source of problem
What is ear ablation?
Cutting a larger ear canal, tx for O. externa
Define Otisis Media
middle ear
What is the most important steps in PE of ear disorders
1. Collect samples FIRST
2. Check for ruptured ear drum
What are causes for O. media?
1. 50% of O. externa become have ruptured ear drum with O. media
2. Nose. throat/sinus infection
3. Trauma
4. Foxtails or other FB
Symptoms of O. media
1. Head shake
2. Pain
3. head shymess
4. head tilt
TX of O. media
1. systemic antibiotics
3. dry clean external ear canal
4. tx source of problem
What are causes for O. media in rabbits?
1. Pastereulla
2. Protozoan organism effecting liver & brain
Define O. interna
inner ear associated with balance, cochlea(hearing)
Causes of O. interna
1. infection
2. extension of otic dz
3. trauma
4. tumors
5. FB
6. R/O old age vesticular dz & tumor
7. head trauma
8. brain damage
Tx for O.interna
2. steroid
3. analgesic
4. fluids
5. handfeeding
6. cage rest
Symptoms of O. interna
1. pain
2. circling head
3. head tilt
4. loss of balance
5. lossd of hearing
Dx for O. interna
1. otoscoptic exam
2. skull rads for tympanic bulla
What is the scientific ear mites
"Otodectes cyanotic"
Symptoms of ear mites
1. thick tarry exudate from the ear
2. highly pruritic
Tx for ear mites?
1. clean ears daily
2. apply topical mitecide
3.Ivermectin SQ once a week for 3 weeks
4. acarexx
Symptoms of fly strikes
1. Dry crusty blood collects around the pinna margin
2. Ear can become ulcersted & erode
3.itchy & painful
Causes of fly strike
1. fly bites around if ear pinna
2. draw blood & attracts more flies
Tx of fly strike
1. clip & clean margins
2. apply Ab salve
3. fly repellent
4. fly control
Define aural hematoma
vessels w/in the pinna burst (usually due to head shaking) causing blood to accumulate btwn skin & cartlage
Causes of aural hematoma
1. otic condition that promotes head shaking
2. dogs, cats & horses
Tx of aural hemotoma
1. allow to resorb
2. spirate
3. marrary teat drain
4. surgery - quilt sitching
Define dermatitus
inflammation of the skin
Causes of dermatitus
1. external irritants
2. burn & other traumas - road rash
3. allergies - biggest cause
4. infestion/infestation
What are the levels of pruritis
levels 1- 10 levels of itching
Kinds of allergies causing dermatitis
1. contact dermatitis
2. FAD - flea allergy
3. Cats- meillary dermitits
4. Interdigital
5. atophy
6.- inhalation dermatitis
7. pyoderma - pus skin - hot spots
8. lip fold dermatitis - lips that are convoluted get stuff gets caught in them
What breed are pre-disposed to lip flod dermatitis
1. Bostyon terriers, pugs, boxers - brachiecephalic breeds
How does the look of acute dermatitis differ from chronic dermatitis?
Acute- red & angry & moist
Chronic -thick, grey & convoluted
What are diagnostic tools used for dermatitis?
1. Imperiacal
2.Skin scrapes
3 cultures
4. Wright's stain
5. biopsy
6. allergy testing
Tx for dermatitis includes:
1. Systemic & topical (steroids)
3. antibiotics
4. tranquilizers
5. topicals
Define Acral pruritic nodule?
lickiosis - raised lesion on extremeties that dog keeps licking which aggrevates the problem
Tx for Acral pruritic nodule
1. steroid injections
2. systemic
3. topical
4. bandages
5. socks
6. e-collar
7 distraction
What is the scientific name for rodent ulcer?
Eosinophilic Granuloma:

A chronic dermatosis occuring on the lips, oral mucosa, & abdomen of cats of any age or sex

"Upper Lip" dermatitis
TX for eosinophilic granuloma
1. Debride for a fresh start
2. systemic steroids
3. cleanse lesion
4. biopsy for carcinoma
5. anti-biotics
Define Feline Acne
comedones (blackheads) on lips, chin & face of catrs
Causes of Feline Acne
1. hormones
2. plastic feeding bowl - chin abrasions
3. self brushers
Define seborrhea
"flow of sebum" a chronic non-pruritic skin condition
Description of Sicca seborrhea
& who is predisposed?
dry, alopecia, fine white scales, coat is lusterless

Setters, sheps, dobbies
Describe oleosa seborrhea
& who is predisposed?
Oily, sticky hair, smelly & greasy, otitis externa may be an extension

Cockers & other spaniels
Causes of seborrhea
1. abnormal lipid content of skin
2. thyroid disorders (hypothyroid)
3. fatty acid deficiency in diet
4.malabsorptionof fats (shepards)
5. 2nd to other chronic skin problems
6. old age
Tx for seborrhea
1. Improved diet
2. anti-seborrheic shampoos
3. oils or lotion
Prognosis for seborrhea
chronic, may lead to euthanasia
Signalment & cause for Miliary Dermatitis?

allergic reaction to ???? +/- fleas
Symptoms of Miliary Dermatitis
1. Bumpy crusty lesiona over dorsal & sacral regions
2. partial alopecia
3. thinning, broken hair
4. pruritic
DX for Miliary Dermatitis
1. Symptoms
2. Biospy
3. allergy testing
Tx for Miliary Dermatitis
1. systemic steroids
2. flea control
3. topicals
Define pyometra
pus-filled uterus
Stages of estrous cycle in K-9
1. anestrus
2. proestrus _ovulation prep, swollen vulva, whitish discharge
3. estrus - ovulation
4. metestrus - progesterone increasem estrogen decreases & whitish discharge
K-9 estrous occurs ______/ year
Feline Estrous
1. Seasonally polyestrus - srping & fall
2.Induced ovulator - 5-10 days if not stimulated then will start again forever
3. Stays in heat until all eggs are dropped
4.Contact w/ male keeps female in heat for 0-10 days
5. ovulation on stimulation of the cervix by the penis barb
Hallmark behavior of feline estrous
1. vocalization
2. affectionate
3. lorodosis
4. tail erect
Length of copulation in felines
5-10 seconds
Causes of pyometra
1. hormonally mediated
2. usually post-estrus 4-8 weeks
3. changes in uterine wall make uterus more susceptible to bacterial infection
Signalment of pyometra
Older dogs and cats over 6 years
Symptoms of pyometra
1. fever
2. open - discharge
3. closed - no discharge
4. depression
5. PU/PD
6. dehydration
7. eukocytosis
8. tender abdomen
Dx for pyometra
1. CBC- high WBC
2. Chemistry to ck. liver & kidney fct.
3. Palpate with care
4. rads
Tx for pyometra
1. surgery
2. IV fluids
3. Anitbiotics
4. Prostaglandin therapy
Signalment for pyometra
Mostly dogs, altho cats can get
What is scientific name for "milk fever"
Occurance of eclampsia
1. lactating females become hypocalcemic w/in 7-10 days of lactating
2. All available Ca goes into the milk production
Symptoms of eclampsia
1. fever -ALWAYS
2. weakness
3. shaking
4. trembling
5. convulsions
What is the cause of mastitis
trauma to mammary glands caused by retained milk or nursing
Who gets mastitis?
Female cats, dogs & ferrets

NOT RABBITS - only nurse 1x/day
Symptoms of mastitis
1. inflammed
2. swollen
3. painful
4. may progress to systemic infection
5. refuse to feed off-srping
Dx of mastitis
1. Hx
2. PE
3. CBC - ck. for WBC or whole panel f fever or sceptic
TX for mastitis
1. Hot compresses
2. treat scepticemia
IV catheter, fluids, antibiotics
3. handraise off-spring
What is the best defensse against mammary tumors?
1. Spay before estrus - 5% risk
2. Spay after estrus - 8% risk
3. Spay after 2 or more - 26% risk
4. After 2.5 years old - chances are the same
Signalment of mammary tumors
1. More common in dogs than cats
Dx for mammary tumors
1. Hx
2. PE - hard nodule
3. needle aspiration
4. Chest rads to ck. metastisis (snow field in the lungs if it is there)
TX for mammary tumors
1. Surgery to debulk the tumor
2. biospy the opposite side
Post op care for mammary tumor surgery
1. hot compresses
2. pain management
3. wound care
Prognosis of mammary tumor
May buy time but eventual euthanasia
What causes Brucellosis & why is this dz important to know about
"Brucella canis"

Zoonotic potential dogs strain is NOT infectious to humans
Transmission of Brucellosis
1. Penetrates all mm
2. fomites
3. contamination via abortion or copulation
Incubation of brucellosis
1. Contamination
2. Macrophages attack organism
3. transport ot lymphatic system & genital tract for multiplication
4. 1-4 weeks bacteria develops
What is the number one way humans contract brucellosis
Handling placenta
Where does brucellosis localize itself & via what route
1. Intervertebral disc
2. eyes
3. kidneys

Via the Bloodstream
How long can the brucellosis last and why
6-64 months b/c bacteria can be dormant for a long time before sporulation
Symptoms are brucellosis include
1. reproductive disorders
2. abortion
3. still birth
4. low sperm viability
5. inability to conceive
Tx for brucellosis
2. remove infecte4d animals from the breeding group
3. 2 antibiotics in combo
Prevention of brucellosis
1. santitatin
2. remove infected animals from breeding
What is the definitive tx for pyometra
Define proprioception
sensory nerve endings that control the psotion of the body or movement

"paw righting"
Who is seasonally polyestrus & what does this mean?

having estrous cycles only during a part of the year
Name the common test for neurological responses
1. Mental status
2. locomotin
3. postural reflexes
4. Visual evaluation
5. spinal cord reflexes
What tests are included in the postural reflexes:
- wheelbarrowing
-hemi stand & hemi walk
- hopping
- proprioception
- extensor postural thrust
- righting reaction
- tonic - neck reaction
What tests are included in the visual portion of a neurological evaluation
- menace reaction
- follows movement
- obstacle test
What is included in the spinal cord reflex protionof the neurological exam
1. Patellar reflex
2. flexor reflex
3. perineal reflex
4. defection & micturation
How do you check the muscle tone during a neurological evaluation
1. Passive manipulation of the limbs
2. Palpation of the muscle masses
What is tonometry used for
To measure the tone of the globe of the eye of IOP
What is the normal IOP
6-12 mm = 15-30mm of pressure`
What does the Fluorescein Dye test detect?
corneal ulcers by dying the underlying layers of superficial epithelial tissue that is damaged
Where do you place opthalmic ointment in a cat
lower palpebral border
What is a dz which causes bulgy eyeballs
retrobulbar abscesses - abscesses behind the globe of the eye
Which breeds are predisposed to glaucoma?
1. spaniels
2. danes
3. basset hounds
4. miniature & toy poodles
5. some terriers
Uremia is usually a sign of what dz
Chronic renal failure
What are the symptoms of uremia
1. Inceased levels of BUN & creatine
2. V/D
3. anemia
4. sometime ulcerative stomatitis

Signs of Renal insufficiency
How to care for a paralysed animal
1. Passive ROM
2. Express bladder 4-5 x/day
3. Turnpatient to prevent bed sores
4. Pad well against recunital sores
5. Elevate patient on a rack so not laying in its fluids
6. Keep eye on stool
7. Ambulatory devises
Define dystocia
difficult birth
Causes for dystocia
1. uterine inertia
2.inadequate pelvis
3. oversized fetue
4. faulty pelvic presentation
5. abdominal complications
If you are presented with a cat that is severely blind what dz should you immediately suspect?
Kidney dz
What is the definitive tx for an aural hematoma?
Quilting the ear flap after draining & removal of eliptical flap of skin in the pinna
Define azotemia
retension of renal excretory products
What is mydriasis
dilation fo the pupil
Clinical signs of eclampsia are caused by
The most appropriate solution to use as an ear cleaner on an animal w/out anintact tympanum is
physiologic saline
What is the most critical factor to expedient healin of decubital sores
exposure to air so stuff stays dry
What is the average gestation of a dog?
63 days
What causes milk fever?
lowered calcium levels
When does hypocalcemia occur in dogs
Pek lactation
Which breeds of dogs are most prone to hip dysplasia
What is excoriation
self inflicted 2nd lesion
What are the 2 infectious agents most often involved in O. externa in a dog
yeast & bacteria
Flushing the external ear canal is contraindicated if
the tympanic membrane is ruptures
What causes decubital sores?
bedsores from exposure to urine
What is the most commonly diagnosed condition in geriatric patients?
arthritis & degenerative joint disease
What test are useful in accessing fluid loss in a patient?
Why perform a ovariohysterectomy
1. prevent pyrometra
2. sterilization of the pet
3. prevention of estrus
What breed is animals ricks proptosis when held too tightly around the enck
dislocation of the eye globe in brachycephalic cats & dogs
Which of the ff is not true of an aural hematoma?
1. must be drained
2. is repaired by trimming back the pinna
3. is painful & bothersome to the pet
4. May be drained & bandaged by wrapping the head with the ear folded back ac
2. No pinna trimming
Enucleation may be required to correct _____
proptosis of the eye
What chemical often causes neurological disorders in cats
Approximately what % of mammary tumors in dogs is malignant?
Dystocia can be defined as active straining w/out delivery for _______ minutes
More than 60 minutes
Why would you administer mannitol to a cat
It shrinks vitreous humor in cases of acute glaucoma
Eclampsia produces elevated body temeratures resulting from _____
heat produced by muscle tremors
what has the greatest capacity to reduce pain & muscle spasm?
Dry heat
Diabetes mellitus is common is which breeds
keeshound, dobies, sheps, retrievers - usually older,obese females
What is the normal response to estrogen?
Inducing estrus
Whatis the response to progesterone
Maintenance of a pregnancy
What are the glands found in the external ear canal called?
ceruminous glands
What is the tie in canine mating
butt to butt
What is a post-coital roll
Female cat does after copulation which stimulates the sperm to move towards the egg

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