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HPR terms


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Health in 1900?

Health in 1930's-1960's?
- Abscence of disease

- State of physical, mental, social well being
Health today?

7 aspects...
Optimal well being

Environmental, Occupational, Physical, Social, Emotional, Intellectual, Spiritual
Wellness made popular by...
Halbert Dunn

13 weekly talks at a church in wash DC
Spiritual Dimension
life satisfaction, belief system, sense of purpose
environmental dimension
injury + safety precautions, respect for surroundings
intellectual dimension
adaptation to change, creativity, problem solving, critical thinking
emotional dimension
self esteem, attitude, self- efficacy, feelings
Occupational Health Dimension
happiness at work, balance work + family
Social Dimension
Acceptance of others, family, social graces, make and keep friends
Wellness Model - AIR?
At 16 years, average child has heard no how many times?
How does laughter lead to a healthier life
reduce stress, elevate mood, boost immune system, lower blood pressure, improves brain functioning
Leading causes of death 1900
pneumonia, TB, diarrhea
Leading causes of death today?

Greatest contributors to premature death?
heart disease, cancer, stroke

Smoking, poor diet + PA, alcohol
PA prevents....
MI by 30%, stroke, cancer, diabetes type 2, hypertension
Best single predictor of mortality?
Exercise capacity
_______ insulin resistance?
_______ insulin sensitivity?

what % are overweight in US?
Hawaiian Men Study

Men who walked __ of more times a day had a ___% mortality rate vs. ___% mortality rate for non exercisers
What law states that tissues adapt structurally to resist forces acting on them?
Goal Achievement
SMART method stands for?
Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic, Target Timeline
Not thinking about changing, reluctant, lack of knowledge, denial
Thought about changing behavior, procrastination,
no physical activity, anxious stage, need positive reinforcement
Change of behavior is observable, public knowledge, need help from others (active 3 or more times a week for the last 6 months)
can experience ralapse, overconficent, daily temptations (vigorous exercise 3-5 times/week for more than 12 months)
5 years of behavior
Processes of Change
Processes of change provide info on how shifts in behavior occur
Consciousness- Raising
increasing info about self and problem
social liberation
increasing social alternatives for behaviors that are not problematic
emotional arousal
expressing feelings about one's problems or solutions
"role play"
self re-evaluation
assessing feelings and thouhts about self with respect to a problem
act or believe in the ability to change
-talk about changes they want to make
environment control
avoid stimuli that elecit problem behaviors
-no cigs or alcohol
reward self for making changes
helping relationships
enlist the help of someone who cares
Common causes of injuries
improper technique, not treating minor aches and pains, picking innapropriate activities, taking risks, improper equipment, too much too fast
Difference between chronic and acute?
C- over time, repitive trauma

A- sudden onset, one time

what do tendons connect?
inflammation of a tendon

connect muscle to bone

from repitive trauma, usually begins as a major irritation

what is a bursa, where are they, what do they do?
inflammation of a bursa

fluid filed sac, strategically placed, decreases friction where connective tissue passes over bone
Shin Splints also known as?-C

what contributes to them?
medial tibial stress syndrome

running on a hard surface, shores, doing too much, muscle imbalances
tennis elbow-C

what is it, how caused?
tendonitis near outside of elbow

ccaused by repeated wrist extension- can cause severe pain when extending wrist and gripping
dislocation- A

what is it?
subluxations correct themselves

bone slips out of joint and stays out. common in fingers and shoulder.
difference between a strain and a sprain?
sprain- partial tear to a ligament (ankle)

strain- damage to a muscle or tendon
__% of us will have a severe back injury in our lives
__% are prevantable
costs our country up to ___ billion/ year
What causes back injury?

what jobs cause them
bad posture, standing or sitting for a long time

truck driver secretary nurse
see the doctor about back pain if:
you lose control of bladder, bowel function, have altered posture, paresthesia (abnormal sensation), severe pain
RICE principle

how many hours of ice?
rest ice compress elevate

72 hours
why ice?

why heat?
ice constricts blood vessels + decreases swelling

heat opens up blood vessels and warms areas up. faster healing, relaxes muscles
How many people each year end up in the ER because of sporting activities?

what % of ER visits?

top 5 culprits?
3 million people


what is a ....
laceration- jagged edged wound
incision- clean edged wound
puncture- hole
avulsion- ripped or torn away
abrasion- scrape
arterial vs venous
arterial- spurting
venous- oozing
unintentional injuries account for nearly ______ deaths per year (leading cause of 1-34 year olds)

each year __% of us will sustain an injury that requires medical attention

what is arrhythmias?

CVD responsible for about __% of deaths in us
abnormal heartbeat

what is atherosclerosis
narrowing of the arteries

can cause MI/stroke
what is c reactive protein a predictor of?

what is it a better predictor than?
predictor of CVD- indicates that there is inflammation in blood vessel walls.

better than cholesterol
what arteries supply the heart with blood?
what causes left ventricular hypertrophy?
overworking of the heart - caves in on itself

high frequency exercise
what is normal HR? range?

highly trained individuals?

avg beats/year - how many tons of blood/day
70-80 BPM - 60-100 range

highly trained- 55

40 million times - 10 tons of blood each day
how does the heart become more efficient with exercise?
pumps more blood with fewer strokes
what is each and does it increase or decrease with physical activity?

-stroke volume
-resting heart rate
-cardiac output (Q)
sv- amt of blood pumped per beat- increases
hr- beats per minute- decreases
q- amt of blood pumped per minute - increases. SV x HR = q
heart rate below 60 called?

above 100 called?

how do you find target heart rate zone?
200 - age =
number x .6 = a
number x .9 = b

target heart rate = a-b
Where are some places you can check your pulse?
thumb side of wrist, neck, arm, pinkie side of wrist
what are some primary risk factors for cvd?
physical inactivity
high cholesterol
high blood pressure
what are some secondary risk factors for cvd?

which are controllable?
diet, heredity, age, weight, gender, race, diabetes, stress

stress, diet, weight
smoking is bad because it causes _______ walls to _______.

also increases stickiness of platelets. why is this bad?
arterial walls , constrict

stickiness causes clotting
what is the difference between good and bad cholesterol?
good- high density lipoprotein. picks up stuff from arterial walls.

bad- low density lypoprotein. deposits stuff on walls.
cholesterol breakdown

total should be less than ___
HDL should be between __ and __.
LDL should be below ___

total/HDL should be lower than ___. more than ___is a risk.
less than 200

hdl- between 40 and 60
ldl- less than 130

below 3.5
4.5 and higher is a risk
hypertension affects ___% of all adults. SBP ___ +
DBP ____+

what is normal blood pressure?

collateral circulation is..?
ischemic response that causes growth or maturation. increases blood supply to the heart - develops over time.
whats the difference between muscular strength and muscular endurance?

how many lifts for strength? for endurance?
strength- max amount of force muscle can generate
endurance- ability to sustain a contraction- amount of time

strength- 3-7
endurance- 15-25
there are over ____ skeletal muscles in the body
____% of SM is water.
over 400
-posture, movement, burns calories, body heat, blood flow
difference between slow twitch and fast twitch?
slow- steady low intensity exercise..darker because of more blood flow.

fast- fibers involved in explosive activities.
what are some guidlines for working out?
form, don't lock joints, exhale during EXERTION, start slow and progress, work out with a partner, work large muscles first
DOMS stands for?

notice how many hours after? lasts for...? caused by.....?
delayed onset muscle soreness
notice 8-24 hours after
lasts for 2-5 days
caused by muscle damage
what to expect?

month 1?
month 2-6?
month 7-12?
1- stronger but not bigger because of neurological system
2-6 - get stronger, start getting bigger
7-12 - reach potential in 7 months. maintain by liftin 2x/ week
difference between types of contractions?

c- muscle fiber shortening, angle of joint decreases
e- angle of joint increases, muscle fibers lengthen
i- fiber length + angle does not change
valsalva maneuvar is....?

why should you avoid it?
when you hold your breath and bear down

avoid it because you could pop blood vessels and cause an anuerism, and it raises blood pressure.
substituting negative for positive stimuli
more than normal load
working only one part of the body at a time
goals of FITT principle?
health benefits, weight management, improved performance, increased fitness
3 functions of skeletal muscles?
posture, heat, mobility
if endurance is desiered, how many reps?
alternating contract/release
degree of abnormal motion of given joint
range of motion

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