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evolution exam 2


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what are homologous chromosomes?
Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes in a biological cell that pair during meiosis, or alternatively, non-identical chromosomes that contain information for the same biological features and contain the same genes at the same loci but possibly different genetic information, called alleles, at those genes. For example, two chromosomes may have genes encoding eye colour, but one may code for brown eyes, the other for blue.
what are nonhomologous chromosomes?
Non-homologous chromosomes representing all the biological features of an organism form a set, and the number of sets in a cell is called ploidy.
what are chromatids?
A chromatid is one of two identical strands making up a chromosome that are joined at their centromeres, for the process of nuclear division (mitosis or meiosis).
what are centrioles?
A centriole in biology is a barrel shaped microtubule structure found in most animal cells and algae though not frequently in plants.
what is a centromere?
The centromere is a region on chromosomes with a special sequence and structure. The centromere plays a role in cellular division and the control of gene expression.
what is polygenic?
a trait coded by more than one gene. most complex orgamisms are polygenic.
what is an allele?
a variant of a gene
what is monogenic?
traits coded by one gene
How is information stored in DNA?
Information is stored in DNA in a shape referring to a double helix. The rungs of the ladder carry a family of chemicals: adenine, cytosine, thymine and guadine. A-T. T-A. C-G. G-C
What is a locus?
the place where genes are located on a chromosome
What are autosomes?
An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. It is an ordinary paired chromosome that is the same in both sexes of a species.
How many pairs of these are typically found in humans?
In humans, there are 22 pairs of autosomes. The X and Y chromosomes are not autosomal.
What is Tay-Sachs disease?
It is a disease of the central nervous system, includes blindness, mental retardation, usually death before the age of five
What is hemophilia?
hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the body's ability to control bleeding. Genetic deficiencies (or, very rarely, an autoimmune disorder) cause lowered plasma clotting factor activity so as to compromise blood-clotting; when a blood vessel is injured, a scab will not form and the vessel can continue to bleed excessively for a very long period of time. The bleeding can be external, if the skin is broken by a scrape, cut or abrasion, or it can be internal, into muscles, joints or hollow organs. It might therefore present visibly as skin bruises, or subtly as melena, hematuria, or bleeding in the brain.
what is huntington's disease?
autosomal dominant, severe mental and physical deterioration, insantiy, appears late in life
what is cystic fibrosis?
abnormal secretions in the body, lungs affected, may live only to twenties
what is sickle cell anemia?
hemogoblin that causes RBCs to become shaped like half-moons
what is down sndrome?
trisonomy 21- mongolism, increases the maternal age, age 45 and up
what is a pedigree?
a map of the organisms genetic history
what is a karyotype?
a chromosome composition of individuals or a photograph of a complete genomic set of chromosomes
what is monosomy?
only one of a particular chromosome when there should be a pair
what is trisomy?
three of one kind of chromosome
what is mongolism?
down syndrom
what is aneuploidy?
when chromosomes fail to seperate at anaphase
what is translocation?
when some aneuploids break off and attaches to another chromosome
What is Turner Syndrom, and what are the symptoms associated with it?
sterile, short, small
What is Klinefelter Syndrome, and what are the symptoms associated with it?
underdeveloped gonads
What is severve violent males, and what are the symptoms associated with it?
lots of acne
what are super females?
you don't know. figure it out.
What are consanguineous matings?
matings that are blood related or occuring between people who have the same ancestor
how does consanguineous mating relate to inbreeding?
when you have sex with someone who is related to you, this is called imbreeding.
what is haploid?
a haploid holds one chromosome
what is a diploid?
a diploid holds two chromosomes
what is homozygous?
when two types of alleles are the same (ex. tt, TT)
what is heterozygour?
when two types of alleles are dfferent?

(ex. Tt)
what is hemizygous?
Hemizygous describes a diploid individual who has only one allele of a gene or chromosome segment rather than the usual two
what is the genotype of a normal human male?
what is the genotype of a normal human female?
what is a barr body?
In those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X or Z, a Barr body is the inactive X chromosome in a female cell, or the inactive Z in a male (Lyon, 2003), rendered inactive in a process called Lyonization. The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all but one is inactivated during mammalian embryogenesis. This happens early in embryonic development at random in mammals, (Brown, 1997) except in marsupials and in some extra-embryonic tissues of some placental mammals, in which the father's X chromosome is always deactivated (Lee, 2003). Barr bodies are named after their discoverer, Murray Barr.
What is Rh?
h disease (also known as Rh (D) disease, Rhesus disease, RhD Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn, Rhesus D Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn or RhD HDN) is one of the causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN). The disease ranges from mild to severe. When the disease is mild the fetus may have mild anaemia with reticulocytosis. When the disease is moderate or severe the foetus can have a more marked anaemia and erythroblasosis (erythroblastosis fetalis). When the disease is very severe it can cause morbus haemolyticus neonatorum, hydrops fetalis, or stillbirth.
what is DNA?
deoxyribonucleic acid
why is it important?
it is a nucleic acid that carries the genetic code of chromosomes
how does it replicate?
the helix unwinds, and each strang picke upp a complementary base
what are the physical characteristics of DNA?
A double helix made up of nucleotides
what necleotide bases does it contain?
Adenine (A)
Thymine (T)
Cytosime (C)
Guanine (G)
Why is the sequence of these bases important?
so we can correctly predict the sequence on the other side of the helix
what is RNA?
ribonucleic acid
how is RNA similar or different from DNA?
RNA's bases include A, C, G, and U- Uracil (instead of T)
how many strands does it usually contain?
one strand of coding is in every RNA
What are teh three diffferent types of RNA do?
tRNA-Rna that lines up amino acids along mRNA to make proteins

mRNA-sends genetic code out of nucleus for translation into proteins

how do the different bases pair in DNA?
??? look this up
Whare are ribosomes?
A ribosome is an organelle in cells that assembles proteins.
what do they do?
assemble proteins
what is transciptiion?
Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA.
what is translation?
Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). In translation, Messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code. Translation is necessarily preceded by transcription.
what is a codon?
The gene sequence inscribed in DNA, and in RNA, is composed of tri-nucleotide units called codons, each coding for a single amino acid.
what is an anticodon?
The anticodon region of a transfer RNA is a sequence of three bases that are complementary to a codon in the messenger RNA. During translation , the bases of the anticodon form complementary base pairs witht the bases of the codon by forming the appropriate hydrogen bonds.
what is an intron?
Introns are sections of DNA that will be spliced out after transcription, but before the RNA is used.
what percentage of human is noncoding?
Apptoximately how many genes does the human genome code for?
3.1 million base pairs

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