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A&P 2 Final


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The use of a chemical messenger to transfer information from cell to cell within a single tissue is referred to a _______ tissue
Cyclic-AMP functions as a second messenger to
Open ion channels an activate key enzumes
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the release of
steroid hormones by adrenal glands
FSH production in males supports
the maturation of sperm by stimulating sustentacular cells
The hormone that indicates ovulation in women and promotes the secretion of progesterone by the ovaries is
The two hormones released by the posterior lobe are
ADH and oxytocin
The primary function of ADH is to
decrease amount of water lost at kidneys
The element required for normal thyroid function is
Reduced fluid losses in urine due ti the retention of Na and water is a result of the action of
The adrenal medulla produces the hormones
epinephrine and norepinephrine
The endocrine portion of the pancreas is the
pancreatic islets
The formed elements of the blood include
WBCs, RBCs, platelets
Blood temperature is approximately ___ and blood pH averages _____.
38C and 7.4 pH
Plasma contributes approximately ___ % of the volume of whole blood, and water accounts for 92% of the plasma volume
55% and 92%
A hematocrit provides information on
packed cell volume
In adults, the only site of red blood cell prodiction, and the primary site of white blood cell formation, is the
red bone marrow
The most numerous WBCs in a differential count of a healthy individual are
The differential count of a person who has an allergy would indicate a high number of
Stem cells responsible for lymphopoieis are located in the
a. thymus and spleen
b. lymph nodes
c. red bone marrow
d. a, b, and c.
The first step in hemostasis is
vascular spasm
_____ and _____ afect almost every aspect of the clotting process.
Calcium and vitamin K
Dehydration would cause a
decrease in the hematocrit
Erythropoietin directly stimulates RBC formation by
a. increasing rates of mitotic divisions in erythroblasts
b. speeding up the mautration of red blood cells
c. accelerating the rate of hemoglobin synthesis
d. a, b and c.
A person with Type A blood has
anti-B antibodies in the plasma
Hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if
an Rh negative mother carries an Rh positive fetus
The great cardiac vein drains blood from the heart muscle to the
right atrium
The autonomic centers for cardiac function are located in the
cardiac centers of the medulla oblongata
The serous membrane covering the inner surface of the heart is the
The simple squamous epithelium covering the valves of the heart constitutes the
The structure that permits blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium while the lungs are developing beore birth is the
foramen ovale
Blood leaves the right ventricle by passing through the
pulmonary valve
The P wave of the ECG appears as the
atria depolarize
During diastole, a chamber of the heart
relaxes and fills with blood
During the cardiac cycle, the amount of blood ejected from th left ventricle when the semilunar valve opens is the
stroke volume
The cells of the conducting system differ from the contractile cells of the heart in tha
contractile cells do not exhibit automaticity
Tetanic muscle contractions cannot occur in a normal cardiac cell because
the refractory peroid lasts until the muscle cell relaxes
The amount of blood that is forced out of hte heart depends on
a. the degree of stretching at the end of the ventricular diastole
b. the contractility of the ventricle
c. the amount of pressure required to eject blood
d. a, b, and c. are correct
specialized fenestrated capillaries
minimum blood pressure
diastolic pressure
vasomotor centers
medulla oblongata
drains the kidney
renal vein
vasoconstrictor fibers
ventricular stretching
Frank-Starling principle
elastic arteries
conducting arteries
blood supply to pelvis
internal iliac artery
vasodilator fibers
largest superficial vein
great saphenous
capacitance vessels
drains the liver
hepatic vein
largest artery in body
stationary blood clot
distribution arteries
muscular arteries
foramen ovale
interatrial opening
precapillary sphincter
resistance vessels
migrating blood clot
carotid sinus
vascular resistance
sounds of Korotkoff
blood pressure
vessels ofvessels
vasa vasorum
peak blood pressure
systolic pressure
Thin-walled medium-sized vessels that appear collapsed and that may tear easily in gross dissection are
The layer of the arteriole wall that provides the properties of contractility and elasticity is the
tunica media
Blood vessels that supply the walls of arteries an veins with blood are
vasa vasorum
Of the following arteries, the one that is an elastic artery is the
subclaian artery
The two-way exchange of substances between blood and body cells occurs only through
Large molecules such as peptides and proteins move into and out of the bloodstream by way of
fenestrated capillaries
The alteration of blood flow due to the action of precapillary sphincters is
The blood vessesl that collect blood from all tissues and organs and return it to the heart are the
Blood is transported through the venous system by means of
muscular contractions and the respiratory pump (a&b)
The most important factor in vascular resistance is
the diameter of blood vessel walls
The specialized exchange surfaces of the liver, bone marrow, and pituitary gland are the
Net hydrostatic pressure farces water ___ a capillary; net osmotic pressure forces water ___ a capillary
out of, into
The two arteries formed by the division of the brachiocephalic trunk are the
common carotid and subclavian
The unparied arteries supplying blood to the visceral organs include the
celiac, superior and inferior mesenteric
The paired arteries supplying blood to the body wall and other structures outside the abdominopelvic cavity nclude the
suprarenals, renals, lumbars, gonadals
The vein that drains the dural sinuses of the brain is the
internal jugular
the bein that drains the thorax and empties into the superior vena cava is the
The vein that collects most of the venous blood from below the diaphragm is the
inferior vena cava
The tributaries of the hepatic portal vein include the
left colic, splenic, inferior and superior mesenteric veins
When dehydration occurs, there is
a, b, and c
Increased CO2 levels in tissues would promote
the dilation of precapillary sphincters
Elevated levels of the hormones ANP and BNP will produce
increased fluid loss through the kidneys
The secretion of ADH and aldosterone are typical of the body's long-term compensation following
a serious hemorrhage
Lymph from the right arm, the right half of the head, and the right chest is received by the
right lymphatic duct
Lymphoid stem cells that can form all tuypes of lymphocytes occur in the
bone marrow
lymphatic vessels are located everywhere except the
central nervous sytem
the body's lrgest collection of lymphoid tissue is in the
adult spleen
Red bone cells that are damaged or defectibe are removed from the bloodstream by the
Phagocytes move through capillary walls by squeezing between adjacent endothelial cells, a process known as
Perforins are proteins associated with the activity of
NK cells
Complement activation
a, b and c
The most beneficial effect of fever is that is
inhibits the spread of some bacteria and viruses and increases the metabolic rate by up to 10% (a and b are correct)
CD4 markers are associated with
helper T cells
Compared with nonspecific defenses, specific defenses
protect against threats on an individual basis
T cells and B cells can be activated only by
exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site on a cell membrane
Class II MHC proteins appear in the cell membrane only when
the cell is processing antigens
The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because
large masses of food can pass through the esophagus during swallowing.
Control over the amount of resistance to airflow and the distribution of air in the lungs is provided by the
The presence of an abnormally low carbon dioxide content in blood is
During expiration, the lungs contract and the intrapulmonary pressure
rises to about 761 mm Hg
During a normal inhalation, theintrapleural pressure is approximately
-6 mm Hg
According to Goyle's law, if the volume of a gas increases
the pressure of the gas will decrease
In tissues at a normal partial pressure of oxygen, blood entering the venous system contains about ___ of its total oxygen content
Approximately 70% of the carbon dioxide absorbed by blood is transported
as carbonic acid
The apneustic centers of teh pons
inhibit the pneumotaxic and inspiratory centers
All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata except the
olfactory epithelium
Sneezing and coughing are classic examples of
protective reflexes
Sympathetic stimulation to the smooth muscle tissue layer in the bronchioles causes
If you have a respiration rate of 15 breaths per minute and a tidal volume of 500 mil of air, your respiratory minute volume is
700 ml
Gas exchange at the respiratory membrane is efficient because
a,b, and c are correct
For any partial pressure of oxygen, if the concentration of 2,3 bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) increases
the amount of oxygen released by hemoglobin will increase
The primary physiologyical adjustment necessary of an athlete to compete at high altitudes is
a, b, and c
an increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood causes chemoreceptors to stimulate the respiratory centers, resulting in
an increased respiratory rate
The enzymatic breakdown of large molecules into their basic building blocks is called
chemical digestion
The outer layer of the digestive tract is known as the
The muscularis externa propels materials from one portion of the digestive tract to another by the contractions of
The activities of the digestive system are regulated by
a,b,and c
double sheets of peritoneum that provide support and stability for the organs of the peritoneal cavity are the
the peritoneal fold that stabilizes and supports the small intestine is the
mesentery proper
intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid are secreted by cells in the stomach wall called
parietal cells.
Protein digestion in the stomach results primarily from secretions released by
chief cells
The part of the digestive tract that plays the primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients is
small intestine.
The hormone that stimulates the secretion of the stomach and contraction of the stomach walls is
The essential metabolic or synthetic service provided by the liver is
a, b, and c
Bile release from the gallbladder into the duodenum occurs only under the stimulation of
The major functions of the large intestine is the
a, b, and c
The part of the colon that accepts chyme from the small intestine is
ascending colon
The three longitudinal bands of smooth muscle found on the outer surface of the colon are
taeniae coli
Three vitamins generated by bacteria in the colon are
vitamin K, biotin, and pantothenic acid

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