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Anatomy TEST 2: set 3


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Macrophages are elevated in:
chronic infections (tb)
the normal concentration of white blood cells in blood?
4000 - 11000 per cmm.
Granulocytes have a life span of
a few hours to a few days
agranulocytes live how much longer than granulocytes?
100-300 days
higher than normal white blood count (greater than 11000)
Leukocytosis occurs in
acute and chronic infections
Leukopenia is a
lower than normal white blood count. (less than 4000)
leukopenia can be caused from
certain drugs particularly glucocorticoids adn anti-cancer drugs.
leukemias are associated with
very high white blood counts. It is a cancerous condition of the white blood cell producing tissue
myelocytic leukemia
leukemia where the leukemic cells are derived from the myeloblast.
lymphocytic leukemia
leukemia where the leukemic cells are derived from lymphoblast.
leukemias may develop ______ or ________
rapidly (acute) or progress slowly (chronic)
leukemias from blastic cells are
leukmias from later developmental stages are
children tend to have___________ while older ppl tend to have
acute leukemias, chronic.
Infectious mononucleosis is a
highly contagious disease caused by the epstein-barr virus.
infectious mononucleouis is associated with
high levels of agranulocytes
leukopoiesis refers to the
formation of white blood cells
white blood cell formation is stimulated by
hormones from certain shite blood cells. These hormones are termed colony-stimulating factors (csf's)
The colonly stimulating factors that have been identified to date includes:
granulocyte colony stimulating factor (gcsf), macrophage-monocyte colony stimulating factor (m-csf), multicolony stimulatign factor(multi-csf or interleukin 3).
some of the csf's are being used clinically to:
stimulate white blood cell formation in cancer patients undergoig chemotherapy ad in individuals with compromised immune systems (aids patients)
in the formation of white blood cells, the myeloid stem cell does what
differentiates into a myeloblast or a monoblast.
the myeloblast then does what?
goes on to form the three granulocyte cell types.
the monoblast does what?
form monycytes
in the lymphoid lineage the lymphoid stem cell forms:
the lymphoblast then does what:
differentiates into the various types of lymphocytes.
in the formation of platelets, the hemocytoblast first:
form the megakaryoblast.
the megakaryoblast develops into
the megakaryocyte then fragments to form
many platelets.
platelets lack
platelets can under go
amoeboid movement
platelets are also known as
the formation of platelets is regulated by the hormone
Platelets are present in the blood at a concentration of
platelets have a life span of
5-10 days
platelets are destroyed by
the liver and spleen
hemostasis refers to
all of the mechanisms which stop bleeding
damage to a blood vessel exposes _________ from the ___________________.
collegen, subendothelial connective tissue
platelets stick to ___________ that has been coated with a protein, secreted by ___________.
collagen, endothelial cells (von willebrand factor)
the reaction of platelets sticking to collegen coated with a protein initiates the
platelet release reaction.
what is the platelet release reaction
platelets release ADP, serotonin, and a prostaglandin termed "thromboxane a2"
serotonin and thromboxane a2 cause
vascular spasms and vasoconstriction in the immediate area.
vascular spasms and vasoconstriction do what during hemostasis
reduces blood flow through the severed vessel during hemostasis.
the formation of a platelet plug helps to do waht
plug up the end of a severed vessel.
ADP and thromboxane A2 cause platelets to do waht?
aggregate atthe site of injury and form a plug to reduce blood loss.
Blood clotting involves the formation of a
fibrin network or clot
blood clotting may occur by an
intrinsic pathwayand an extrinsic pathway
the extrinsic pathway and the intrinsic pathway lead to.
a common pathway
after a clot is formed, the clot ay
retract due to contraction of platelets to form a compact plug in a severed vessel.
the intrinsic pathway is initiated by
factors within the blood
the intrinsic pathway mechanism begins when
plasma contacts negative surfaces such as collagen or glass
the contact of plasma to negative surfaces activates waht
factor XII. (hageman factor)
Factor XII is a __________ and activates _________
protease, factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent-PTA)
Factor XI activates
factor IX (plasma thromboplastin component-PTC)
After factor XI activates factor IX, the next step is
formation of factor VIII complex
the four components of factor VIII complex are
factor VIII (anti-hemophilic factor AHF), activated factor IX, calcium ions, platelet phospholipids (platelet factor 3 PF3)
platelet pohospholipids (platelet factor 3) is released during?
platelet release reaction.
Factor VIII leads into
the common pathway
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