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The fluid that circulates through the heart & the blood vessels.
Pertaining to the heart.
The study of the heart
The system through which the nutrient fluids of the body circulate
Circulatory System
The process of clotting
A clot or other plug, usually part or all of a thrombus, brought by the blood from another vessel & forced into a smaller one, thus obstructing circulation.
A protein formed in the blood which is related to the ability to resist infection
Gammas Globulin
The science concerned with blood & the blood-forming tissues
The iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells. Composed of iron & protein. It is the oxygen carrying red pigment of the red blood cell.
The destruction of red blood cells with liberation of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid.
A sex-linked hereditary blood disease in which blood fails to clot & abnormal bleeding occurs.
Abnormal internal or external bleeding
Arrest of bleeding or of circulation
State of equilibrium of the internal environment
Pertaining to the outer part or surface of the body; part away from the center
Inflammation of a vein, especially in the veins of the lower limbs.
Involving the lungs
Pertaining to the whole body rather than to one of its parts
A solid mass formed in the living heart or vessels from constituents of the blood; attached to the wall of the vessel.
Injection of the blood of one person into the blood vessels of another
Swollen, distended, & knotted veins, usually in the subcutaneous tissues of the leg
Varicose Veins
Narrowing of the caliber of blood vessels
Widening of blood vessels
1. Transports various substances to & from body cells such as O2, CO2, food, water, chemicals, hormones, & wastes.

2. Protects body against invading microorganisms.

3. Helps regulate body temperature

4. Maintains
Functions of the Circulatory System
Pumps blood into the arteries
Carry blood to & from the heart, & thus carry oxygen & nutritive materials to the body & remove products of metabolism.
Blood Vessels
Forms blood cells & hemoglobin
Red Bone Marrow
Carry lymph & tissue fluid, help to filter the blood, & manufacture lymphocytes
Lymphatic Vessels & Nodes
1. Heart
2. Blood Vessels
3. Red Bone Marrow
4. Lymphatic Vessels & Nodes
5. Spleen
Organs of the Circulatory System
Forms lymphocytes & monocytes, stores blood cells, and filters out bacteria & worn-out red blood cells.
Liquid part of blood which serves as a source of nutrition & a means of removing waste products from the body cells
Blood Plasma
Formed elements part of blood
Blood Cells:
- Red Blood Cells (RBC)
- White Blood Cells (WBC)
- Blood platelets
Blood Cells that transport respiratory gases: CO2 & O2
Red Blood Cells
Blood cells that ingest & digest foreign particles in blood, form antibodies, & release heparin which prevents intravascular clotting
White Blood Cells
Blood cells that initiate clotting
Blood Platelets
Red Bone Marrow:
- skull
- vertebrae
- ribs
- sternum
- proximal epiphysis of femur & humerus
Sites of the formation of Red Blood Cells
Rate of Red Blood Cell formation
RBCs are formed continually, millions every hour.
Life span of RBCs?
120 Days
Break apart or rupture in the capillaries of the liver and/or the spleen. Liver breaks down the fragments.

Can also be destroyed by normal stress:
- Mechanical destruction, as when taking blood from a vein.
- Hemolysis: Hypotonic sol
How are RBCs destroyed?
4.5 - 5.5 million/cubic milimeter
Lab Test -
Erythrocyte (RBC) count
The percentage count of total blood volume composed of RBC.
- male: 42-50%
- female: 40-48%
Lab Test -
Hematocrit count
The amount of hemoglobin expressed in grams per 100 milliliters of blood.

- male: 14-18 grams/100 ml
- female: 12-16 grams/100 ml
Lab Test -
Give information about the red cell production rate
Lab Test -
Reticulocyte count
Red minute, disk-shaped cells with central area thinner than the edges (concave)

Very Flexible & elastic

3,000 cells side-by-side are equal to 1 inch in length

Mature cells contain no nucleus; therefore, no further gr
Characteristics of RBCs
Colorless, amoeboid-like cells

Nuclei vary in shape depending on the type of cell.
Characteristics of White Blood Cells
AKA white corpuscles
Neutrophils - 60-70% of all WBC
Lymphocytes - 20-30% of all WBC
Monocytes - trace amounts
Basophils - trace amounts
Eosinophils - trace amounts
Types of WBCs
1. Phagocytosis

2. Formation of antibodies by lymphocytes

3. Release of heparin by basophils
Functions of WBCs
WBC Site of Formation & Life Span
- Netrophils
- eosinophils
- basophils
- lymphocytes
- monocytes
Neutrophils, eosinophils & basophils
Red Bone Marrow

Lymph Nodes

cell lining the capillaries
in various organs, especially the spleen

Life Span
1-12 Days
Lab Test-
Leukocyte count
WBC count
5,000 - 10,000/ cubic millimeter

elevation usually indicates infection
or pathological condition
round or oval disk shaped cells that
initiate the clotting mechanism.

They are formed in the Red Bone Marrow

Their life span is 1 to 4 days
Lab Test -
Platelet Count
200k to 500k/cubic millimeter
Unoxygenated: carried by veins and is purple or deep red

Oxygenated: carried by arteries and is bright red
Blood Color
Taste: slightly metalic & salty

Reaction: slightly alkeline, pH 7.35 - 7.45

Specific Gravity: 1.050 - 1.065
slightly heavier than water
Physical Characteristics of Blood
Varies with weight & sex of the individual
but average total is 5,000 - 5,500 cc. in
average plasma
Amount of blood in the body
- 45% cells, 55% plasma
- 78% water, 22% solids
Consistency of Blood
a. water: 90%

b. Solutes: 10%
-- Electrolytes: mineral salts
-- Nutrients: Glucose, amino acids, fats
-- Metabolic wastes: Urea, uric acid, creatinine, lactic acid
-- Respiratory gases: O2 & CO2
-- Regulatory subst
Composition of blood plasma

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